For most universities and colleges, an academic year is divided into two semesters, each up to 18 weeks long except for senior students in their final semester where they end the semester two weeks earlier. The student will need to successfully complete clearance requirements and in a few cases, maintain a certain overall mark in order to progress in her university studies in the next semester.
The first semester is followed by a break consisting of two to four weeks before the second semester, called the Semestral Break, which usually occurs between the second week of October to the second week of November for all universities and colleges. Classes start in the fourth week of May and ends in the third week of April.
Under this system, students are typically able to finish their academic studies a year earlier than those from other universities with a semestral programme. This allows their engineering programmes to be completed a year ahead of schools running on a semestral schedule.
Moreover, starting academic year , constituent campuses in the University of the Philippines System started their school year in August to end in May and the University of Santo Tomas started the Academic Year in August and it will end in May In AY , several Philippine colleges and universities will follow the shift. Scholastica's College Manila will start their calendar in early July and it will end in mid- to late April and it was aimed to be a transition to a full August to May Calendar in the succeeding academic years.
In Poland, the school year begins on September 1 and ends on the first Friday after June There is also a winter holiday break lasting two weeks in January or February but the exact date is different for each province and the dates usually change each year. Winter break is also the dividing line between the two semesters of the school year. Most universities start their courses on October 1 at some institutions late September , and the first semester commonly referred to as the " winter term " ends in January.
The second term starts in February or March, the " summer term " and ends in June. Each semester is usually 15 or 16 weeks long. After each of them there is an " examination session ", when no courses are taught, which lasts up to one month.
The summer break starts after the exams and lasts until the start of the next academic year. In September there is an extra examination session during which students can retake failed exams. The school year in Romania is divided into two semesters.
From kindergarten to high school the first semester opens in early-mid September and continues until mid-late January. The second semester lasts from early February until early-mid June. Note that Some teachers might change the calendar a bit, like starting semesters and summer break one week earlier. Data as of December 7, The school year is divided into four terms quarters , separated by one- or two-week holidays the first week in November, the first two weeks in January, and the last week of March.
The summer holiday lasts three months: June, July, and August. Generally the school year lasts until 25 May, which is also known as The Last School-Bell day celebrated by the graduates, their families and teachers. The school graduation ceremony - Graduation Evening Russian: The academic year at universities also starts on September 1 and usually consists of 42 educational weeks and 10 weeks of holidays.
It is divided into two terms semesters. Some Russian universities do not use a traditional scheme: The school year coincides with the calendar year, and the first term begins on January 2 unless it is a weekend or a Monday. The school year comprises four terms of 10 weeks each. Terms 1 and 2 are known as Semester 1, and terms 3 and 4 as Semester 2. The first year of Junior College begins in February [ citation needed ] to accommodate the release of the O level results. International schools in Singapore operate on a different system, often similar to the system in their home countries.
The training year in ITE is made up of two terms, commencing January and April respectively, depending on the month of intake. Polytechnics and universities operate on a different calendar from schools. There are two semesters in a year in polytechnics. The school year for elementary, grammar and high schools begins on September 2 September 1 is Constitution Day and ends June 29 of the following year. The school day starts at 8: It is split into two halves, with the first half ending on the last day of January.
Universities starts in second half of September or 1 October. The school year in Slovenia for elementary and grammar schools begins on 1 September and formally ends on 31 August, although classes and exams are finished by 25 June.
July and August thus constitute summer holidays. There are also four one-week breaks during the school year, occurring around All Saints Day , between Christmas and New Year, at the end of February, and around the May Day.
Universities and colleges follow a different academic year. It consists of two semesters—the winter semester starting on 1 October, which ends around 15 January. It is followed by a one-month break, during which students take the exams for subjects they have read in the semester. The summer semester begins on 15 February and lasts until 31 May, followed by the exam period, which ends on 30 June.
Students who have not passed the necessary exams have a chance to do so during the autumn exam period in September. Students and faculty are free during in July and August. New classes are held again in October.
All South African public schools have a four-term school year as determined by the national Department of Education. Each term is between 10 and 11 weeks long. The terms are roughly structured as follows:. The academic year is approximately school days in duration and runs from January to December. Private schools follow a similar calendar, but slightly alter it according to their academic and religious needs.
Some independent private schools have a three-term year instead . The dates of the school year for coastal schools are slightly different from those for inland schools. The National Education Department proposed a five-week-long school break in June—July for the Soccer World Cup-hosted in South Africa-to avoid pupil and teacher absenteeism and a chaotic transport system.
South African universities have a year consisting of two semesters, with the first semester running from early February to early June, and the second semester from late July to late November. Each semester consists of twelve or thirteen teaching weeks, interrupted by a one-week short vacation, and followed by three or four weeks of examinations.
In the first semester the short vacation often falls around the Easter weekend, while in the second semester it occurs in early September. In South Korea , the school year is divided into two terms. The first term usually runs from March 2, unless it is a Friday or the weekend, to mid-July with the summer vacation from mid-July to late-August elementary and secondary schools and from mid-June to late August higher education institutions.
The second term usually resumes in late August and runs until mid-February. The winter break is from late December to late January. There are two weeks of school elementary and secondary schools in February. Then there is a two-week-break before the new academic year starts in March. The school hours are approximately from 8: For middle school, it is about from 8: In Primary School, the lower grades Grades have classes around 8: Each class lasts about 40 minutes.
In high school, the older students are sometimes required to stay until 9: For the most part, teachers rotate and the students stay in their classroom except for certain classes such as Physical Education, Music and Science labs. From to , Korean students from elementary to secondary schools were required to go to school on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th Saturdays of each month.
Prior to , students had to go to school six days a week, except for , when students had one Saturday off every month. The schools normally ended at noon on Saturday, and the curriculum is mostly focused on extracurricular activities.
However, Korean Ministry of Education abolished school days on the Saturdays in The school year consists of two semesters. The fall semester begins in early September and runs till late January or early February.
Summer vacation is from early July to end of August. Winter vacation typically runs from two to three weeks around the Lunar New Year. Spring semester begins following the Lantern Festival in mid February and ends in early June.
Privatized institutions in Taiwan have varying academic terms. There are two semesters in the Thai academic year with an optional summer semester. From kindergarten to high school, the first semester opens in mid May and continues until the end of September. The second semester lasts from November until the end of February or early March. The university academic year is slightly different, lasting from June to October and mid November to mid March.
The Turkish academic year begins in September and continues through to the following June. In most public educational institutions from primary to tertiary, the first semester begins in September and continues until January, and the second semester begins February and continues until June.
The academic year at universities starts on September the 1st and usually consists of two semesters. The English law courts terms and legal training pupillage divided the year into four terms, partly to create a predictable work schedule, but also to make allowances for harsh travel conditions and delays caused by adverse weather at a time when all English law students and many litigants had to travel to London for training or legal advice at one of the Inns of Court. The English legal year still runs to this calendar: In Scotland, academic and judicial institutions traditionally organised their year around the Scottish term days , the traditional divisions of the Scottish legal year: The school year in the United Kingdom is generally divided into three terms running from autumn to summer.
For state schools, the school year consists of days of which there are teaching days and five INSET teacher training days. For independent schools, the school year can be as short as days. The structure of the school year varies between the constituent countries of the United Kingdom with school holiday dates varying between local education authorities.
Before the mechanisation of agriculture and when more of the population lived in the rural countryside, the long summer school holiday in Britain arose in the 19th century as a result of the education authorities abandoning the battle to keep children at school through haymaking around the start of August and wheat harvest around the end of August , when every available pair of hands was needed on the land.
In England and Wales , the school year generally runs from early September until late July of the following year. Most schools operate a three-term school year, each term divided in half by a week-long break known as "half term" although some counties, like Oxfordshire,  consider these to be six separate terms instead , and are structured as follows:. The terms are separated by two holidays, each of approximately two weeks' duration: The period between the end of one school year and the start of the next is the summer holidays, which are six to eight weeks long.
The academic year originated in the pre-industrial era when all able-bodied young people were expected to work through the period of July and August. For the purposes of education, the remainder of the year was arranged into three terms accommodating the Christian holidays of Christmas and Easter.
Half-term breaks divide the to week terms. However the long summer break has been criticised by educationalists in the post-industrialist age because it creates a break in the academic progress. Each term would be eight weeks long with a two-week break in between terms, and a minimum four-week summer holiday, with no half terms—the idea being that children can keep up momentum for eight weeks without a break. In , the Local Government Association set up a commission to look at alternative proposals for a more balanced school year.
In partnership with Local Authorities and teachers unions, they were unable to agree to a suitable alternative arrangement for terms, but by came to an agreement with the National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers for a standardised arrangement of school terms. Since , around one third of English local authorities have signed up to the proposals which see a standard academic year agreed between the authorities, including slight variations on the traditional schemes, based on the following principles:.
In addition the independent schools have set their own term dates with varying degrees of local and national co-ordination. The school year in Northern Ireland generally runs from early September to late June or early July of the following year. Most schools operate a three-term school year similar to England and Wales; however, there is no half term during summer term due to the province's longer summer holidays. The terms are structured as follows:.
The terms are separated by two holidays each consisting of approximately two weeks: The summer holidays in Northern Ireland last nine weeks, from the start of July until the end of August, due to the Twelfth of July bank holiday. The school year in Scotland generally runs from middle or late August to late June or early July of the following year usually in eastern council areas from the third Monday in August to the first Friday in July and in western council areas from the second Monday in August to the last Friday in June.
The period between the end of one school year and the start of the next is known as the summer holidays and consists of six or seven weeks. The academic year at most UK universities runs from September or October to June or July with three or four week breaks around Christmas and Easter that divide the year into three terms. Some older universities have special names for the three terms, e. Special term names i.
Exceptions to the ordinary structure of the academic year include the University of Buckingham , where undergraduate courses do not coincide with the academic year used by universities in Britain and elsewhere. Instead, they largely coincide with the calendar year—they typically start in January or February, with examinations in autumn. The word quadmester or quadrimester is occasionally used to mean either four months or more commonly in modern American usage a quarter of a year.
In the United States, the K—12 school calendar is determined by the individual states, and in some cases by the local school district, so there is considerable variation.
The academic year typically consists of two week semesters, each divided into two nine-week marking periods or quarters or three six-week marking periods, and constituting to instructional days with an average of Grades are usually reported per marking period, but major examinations are given per semester or per year.
The traditional start date for the school year has been the Tuesday or Wednesday right after Labor Day. Although some schools still keep this tradition, many schools now start in the last two weeks of August and some schools especially private ones may start as late as the end of September or the first week in October. There are also some schools, especially in the southern tier of the United States, that begin at the end of July and early August. The school year ends 40 to 42 instructional weeks after it begins usually around late-May or June.
School holidays in the United States vary by jurisdiction. They include federal, state, and local holidays , all or only some of which may be observed by an individual school district.
In addition to these legal holidays, there are vacation periods of varying length. Almost all schools observe the Thanksgiving holiday, and extend it to include the day after Thanksgiving Black Friday since it is a Friday. There is usually a recess of about one to two weeks during the winter holiday period at Christmas and New Year, with a spring break in March or April that is usually correlated to the holidays of Easter and usually Passover.
Many schools have additional "in-service" days in which school is in session for only faculty and staff. These days are often used for parent—teacher conferences on student progress, especially in primary school. In secondary school, they are usually used as staff development days. Sometimes schools do half-day in-service days in which students are dismissed early, rather than full-day holidays.
Unplanned vacations can extend the school year if they could have been prevented by school administrators, in theory if not in fact. Natural disasters and other incidents do not normally extend the school year because they could not have been prevented.
Thus, if the school is closed for two weeks 10 instructional days because the boiler has broken down, that will extend the school year by two weeks because proper maintenance could have prevented the problem, but snow storms and other forms of severe weather normally do not extend the school year because they cannot be prevented.
Some regions allow for up to three to five snow days , and any additional missed days can extend the school year. Many, but not all, community colleges originated as extensions of the primary and secondary school system. However, most operate under a semester based schedule. Three calendar systems are used by most American colleges and universities: These are ways the calendar year is organized into a formal academic year, measured September—August or August—August.
Some schools, particularly some business schools and community colleges, use the mini-mester or mini-semester system. The quarter system divides the calendar year into four quarters, three of which constitute a complete academic year. Quarters are typically 10—12 weeks long so that three quarters amount to 30—36 weeks of instruction. Approximately 20 per cent of universities are on the quarter system. Most colleges that use the quarter system have a fall quarter from late September to mid-December, a winter quarter from early January to mid-March, a spring quarter from late March or early April to mid-June, and an optional summer session.
The semester system divides the calendar year into two semesters of 16 to 18 weeks each, plus summer sessions of varying lengths. The two semesters together constitute 32 to 36 weeks of instruction, so that three academic quarters equal two academic semesters. Put another way, 3 quarter hours is 2 semester hours. In practice, the average quarter-long course is four or five units and the average semester course is three units, so a full-time student graduating in four years would take five courses per semester and three or four courses per quarter.
Some colleges and universities have a system, which divides the year into two four-month terms September to December and February to May as well as a single one-month term in January in which students can do independent study, study abroad, internships, activities, or focus on one or two classes.
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