For example, General Schöning took "two of the most beautiful women in the world" in Buda who later converted to Christianity. Fatima and Augustus had two children: Records show that at this point it was not uncommon for Turks in Germany to convert to Christianity.
For example, records show that 28 Turks converted to Christianity and were settled in Württemberg. With the establishment of the Kingdom of Prussia in , Turkish people continued to enter the German lands as soldiers employed by the Prussian kings. For example, in , the Duke of Kurland presented twenty Turkish guardsmen to King Frederick William I , and at one time, about 1, Muslim soldiers are said to have served in the Prussian cavalry.
By Frederick the Great stated that:. By , an Ottoman legation existed at the Prussian court in Berlin. Its third envoy, Ali Aziz Efendi , died in which led to the establishment of the first Muslim cemetery in Germany. Once trading treaties were established between the Ottomans and the Prussians in the nineteenth century, Turks and Germans were encouraged to cross over to each other's lands for trade.
Consequently, in the same year, the West German government signed a labour recruitment agreement with the Republic of Turkey on October 30, , and officially invited the Turkish people to emigrate to the country. By —62, German employers played a crucial role in pressuring the State to end the two-year limitation clause of the " Gastarbeiter " "guest worker" agreement so that Turkish workers could stay in West Germany for longer.
Most Turkish people who immigrated to West Germany intended to live there temporarily and then return to Turkey so that they could build a new life with the money they had earned. Indeed, return-migration had increased during the recession of , the oil crisis , followed by the policy of giving remigration bonuses in the early s. This was in part because labour shortages continued in low paying, low-status service jobs such as electronics, textiles, and garment work; and in part to further the goal of family reunification.
These debates about citizenship were accompanied by expressions of xenophobia and ethnic violence that targeted the Turkish population. Turkish communities experienced considerable fear for their safety throughout Germany, with some 1, reported cases of right wing violence, and 2, cases the year after.
Citizenship laws that established eligibility according to place of birth rather than according to descent have been slow in coming and restrictions on dual citizenship are still onerous. However, increasing numbers of second-generation Turks have opted for German citizenship and are becoming more involved in the political process. Initially, some Bulgarian Turks arrived in Germany during the introduction of the family reunification laws of The Bulgarian Turks were able to take advantage of this law despite the very small number of Bulgarian citizens in Germany.
This is because some Turkish workers in Germany who arrived from Turkey were actually part of the Bulgarian-Turkish minority who had left Bulgaria during the communist regime during the s and still held Bulgarian citizenship , alongside their Turkish citizenship. The migration of Bulgarian Turks to Germany increased further once communism in Bulgaria came to an end in Bulgarian Turks who were unable to join the massive migration wave to Turkey in , during "big excursion", were faced with severe economic disadvantages and faced discrimination through State policies of Bulgarisation.
Hence, from the early s onwards many Bulgarian Turks sought asylum in Germany. The Bulgarian Turks have generally been attracted to Germany because they rely on the well-established German-Turkish community for gaining employment. From the s onwards, the Turkish minority of Greece , particularly the Turks of Western Thrace , began to immigrate to Germany alongside other Greek citizens.
Article 19 of the Greek Constitution essentially stripped off the Western Thrace Turks living abroad particularly those in Germany and Turkey of their Greek citizenship.
Many Western Thrace Turks who did intend on returning to Greece were discriminated against and were refused the right to a hearing.
Estimates of the number of Western Thrace Turks who lost their citizenship range between several hundred to several thousand. The migration of Western Thrace Turks to Germany continued to increase in the s and s. This was because the Thracian tobacco industry was affected by a severe crisis and many tobacco growers lost their income.
In particular, they have been particularly adamant in pressuring the Greek State to resolve the legal issues in regards to Article 19 of the Citizenship Law. Turkish Cypriots began to emigrate from Cyprus to Western Europe, mostly to the United Kingdom but also a few to Germany , during the Cyprus conflict s and its immediate aftermath.
Today there is approximately 2, Turkish Cypriots living in Germany. Due to the numerous wars in Lebanon since the s onwards, many Lebanese Turks have sought refuge in Turkey and Europe , particularly in Germany.
Indeed, many Lebanese Turks were aware of the large German-Turkish population and saw this as an opportunity to find work once settling in Europe. In particular, the largest wave of Lebanese-Turkish migration occurred once the Israel-Lebanon war of began. During this period more than 20, Turks fled Lebanon, particularly from Beirut , and settled in Germany. This is because the German state does not categorise immigrants, or their descendants, in terms of ethnicity. Consequently, ethnic Turks who have German citizenship are categorised as "German" rather than "Turkish".
Similarly, those with Turkish citizenship are categorised as "Turkish" irrespective of their ethnicity. Hence, ethnic minorities from Turkey who have also immigrated to Germany are not distinguished as a separate group, according to their ethnicities. Furthermore, the significant number of ethnic Turkish communities who have arrived in Germany from the Balkans , Cyprus , and the Arab World are recorded according to their citizenship, such as "Bulgarian", "Cypriot", "Greek", "Iraqi", "Lebanese" "Macedonian", "Romanian", "Syrian" etc.
Whilst these ethnic Turkish communities have different nationalities , they share the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious origins as mainland ethnic Turks. A fourth of all marriages in the Turkish group in Germany are marriages to a family relative according to Essener Zentrums für Türkeistudien.
Young women of Turkish origin are twice as likely to attempt suicide as their female German peers. Researchers assume the higher rate is due to family conflicts involving differences in how a young woman should behave according to Turkish and German values. Estimates of the total Turkish population in Germany, including those of partial descent, have ranged considerably because the German census does not collect data on ethnicity. Academic estimates have often ranged between 2.
Estimates suggest that the total number of people living in Germany who originate from Turkey only including ethnic minorities from Turkey , particularly the Kurds reaches, or is more than, five million people    to 5. Some academics have also quoted the much higher estimates made by European officials.
For example, Tessa Szyszkowitz has quoted one estimate by a European official suggesting that there are seven million Turks living in Germany, including the second generation. The Turkish community in Germany is concentrated predominantly in urban centers.
The vast majority are found in the former West Germany , particularly in industrial regions such as the states of North Rhine-Westphalia where a third of German Turks live ,  and Baden-Württemberg and the working-class neighbourhoods of cities like Berlin especially in Neukölln , Hamburg , Bremen , Cologne , Duisburg , Düsseldorf , Frankfurt , Mannheim , Mainz , Nuremberg , Munich , and Stuttgart.
In regards to return-migration, many Turkish nationals and German Turks have also migrated from Germany to Turkey , for retirement or professional reasons. Official German records show that there are 2. Turkish immigrants make up Germany's second biggest immigrant group with almost 3 million people and are very poorly integrated, ranked last in Berlin Institute's integration ranking.
For decades Turkish citizens in Germany were unable to become German citizens because of the traditional German construct of "nationhood". The legal notion of citizenship was based on "blood ties" of a German parent jus sanguinis — as opposed to citizenship based on country of birth and residence jus soli.
This adhered to the political notion that Germany was not a country of immigration. In Germany's citizenship law was somewhat relaxed with the introduction of the Foreigner's Law; this gave Turkish workers the right to apply for a permanent residency permit after eight years of living in the country. Hence, they were deprived of the right to hold dual citizenship because it would increase the Turkish population in the country.
Chancellor Helmut Kohl officially stated this as the main reason for denying dual citizenship in when he said the following:. Nonetheless, another citizenship reform law was soon introduced after Helmut Kohl finished his last term as Chancellor. The Citizenship Law of , which was officially taken into effect on January 1, , has facilitated the acquisition of German citizenship for people born outside of Germany, making it available to Turkish immigrants after eight years of legal residence in the country.
Former Turkish citizens who have given up their citizenship can apply for the "Blue Card" Mavi Kart , which gives them some rights in Turkey, such as the right to live and work in Turkey, the right to possess and inherit land or the right to inherit; however, they do not have the right to vote.
It has been criticized that there is a media and political bias against German Turks compared to Kurds in Germany, for example, when pro-Erdogan Turks demonstrate the media and many politicians warn against these demonstrations, but the same media and politicians remain silent about the many regular pro-PKK Kurdish demonstrations. In the German journalist Günter Wallraff shocked the German public with his internationally successful book Ganz unten "In the Pits" or "Way Down" in which he reported the discrimination faced by the Turks in German society.
He disguised himself as a Turkish worker called "Ali Levent" for over two years and took on minimal-wage jobs and confronted German institutions. He found that many employers did not register or insure their Turkish workers. Moreover, major employers like Thyssen did not give their Turkish workers adequate breaks and did not pay them their full wage.
In The Local and Der Spiegel reported that a new study reveals Turks in Germany lag behind other migrant groups when it comes to education and jobs. Immigrants of Turkish origin were also found to be the least successful in the labour market: Conversely, they had a significantly higher birth rate. The Turkish people who immigrated to Germany brought their culture with them, including their language, religion, food, and arts.
These cultural traditions have also been passed down to their descendants who maintain these values. Consequently, German Turks have also exposed their culture to the greater German society. This is particularly noticeable in the developing landscape of the country, with numerous Turkish restaurants, grocery stores, teahouses, and mosques scattered across Germany. Moreover, the Turks in Germany have also been exposed to the German culture - as is evident on the influence it has played in the Turkish dialect spoken by the Turkish community in Germany.
The Turkish cuisine first arrived in Germany during the sixteenth century and was consumed among aristocratic circles. By the early s Turks began to open fast-food restaurants serving popular kebap dishes. Today there are Turkish restaurants scattered throughout the country selling popular dishes like döner kebap in take-away stalls to more authentic domestic foods in family-run restaurants.
Moreover, since the s, Turks have opened grocery stores and open-air markets where they sell ingredients suitable for Turkish home-cooking, such as spices, fruits, and vegetables. Turkish is the second most spoken language in Germany, after German. It was brought to the country by Turkish immigrants who spoke it as their first language. These immigrants mainly learned German through employment, mass media, and social settings, and it has now become a second language for many of them.
Nonetheless, most Turkish immigrants have passed down their mother tongue to their children and descendants. In general, German-born Turks become bilingual at an early age, learning Turkish at home and German in state schools; thereafter, a dialectal variety often remains in their repertoire of both languages.
German-born Turks mainly speak the German language more fluently than their "domestic"-style Turkish language. Consequently, they often speak the Turkish language with a German accent or a modelled German dialect. Parents generally encourage their children to improve their Turkish language skills further by attending private Turkish classes or choosing Turkish as a subject at school. In some states of Germany the Turkish language has even been approved as a subject to be studied for the Abitur.
Turkish has also been influential in greater German society. Dave Chick tells us the story. Tony Belton recalls a mishap involving London trolleybus which struck the arched bridge in Kentish Town causing extensive damage to the vehicle. There is news on the recently approved project which will hopefully see Leeds re-introduce a trolleybus system to the UK. Colin Allan marks the 75th anniversary of the Opening Ceremony of the Hull Trolleybus system on 23 July whilst Malcolm Wells has done more research on Hull's trolleybus routes that never were!
Dave Chick reports on the 60th anniversary celebrations in Ostrava with some excellent colour photos. This being issue of our journal, Fred Ivey recalls the last week of operation on London Trolleybus route This months edition is almost entirely devoted to the 50th anniversary of the London system closure. Dave Chick reports on the wonderful London Trolleybus 50 event held at at Carlton Colville between the 6 and 8 May Dave also reports on his visit to Fulwell depot in London where a day of celebration of the London Trolleybus was held on 12 May There is a selection of wonderful photos of London Trolleybuses covering route and the two events mentioned above.
The city of Valparaiso operates Chile's only current trolleybus system, which opened in The capital, Santiago, operated trolleybuses between and and again briefly between and Dave Chick reports on Sandtoft's first operational weekend of the season, held over Easter. Bradford was the themed event to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the closure of that system. David Lawrence reports on the latest happenings in the world of trolleybus preservation whilst Bruce Lake brings us up to date with the latest World News.
On our cover this month we have a striking view of modern architecture and public transport as Salzburg's latest trolleybus route extension is launched.
More details are in World News. An article on Milano's trolleybuses by Bob Westaway is accompanied by a centre page colour spread. Dave Chick reviews two new models of Beijing trolleybuses and Tony Belton rounds off the April edition issue number with a pair of themed colour photos, showing Huddersfield in Northgate in August , and an unusual photo showing London trolleybus and Routemaster RM sided by side at Moorgate, both on service Dave Young recalls his last opportunity to travel on service trolleybuses in the UK with a visit to Bradford nine days prior to the closure of that system.
A great way to help the work of the Trolleybus Museum at Sandtoft is to join one of the regular working parties held over various weekends in the winter months.
Dave Chick attended a working party at Sandtoft and reports on its success. There are reviews of two recently published books on Trolleybuses. There are some superb colour photos of the Bratislava and Zilina systems on the centre pages. Tony Belton visited Geneva and reports on a section of trolleybus route recently converted to tramway. Dave Hall looks at the history of the San Remo trolleybus system as well as reporting on a visit to the system he made in October Reading won an award at the Woodcote Rally back in July but until now we were unsure why.
The mystery is now solved in this issue!!! Part 8 of the RTS history by Dave Hall takes us through the year of when the Trolleybus Preservation Movement began to make some serious progress with its dreams. John Zebedee's colourful photos of the St. BTS member Irvine Bell responds to the invitation to submit comments on this policy. Dave Lawrence updates us on the latest news from the world of trolleybus preservation whilst Bruce Lake updates on the latest World News.
Dave Lawrence brings us the latest news in the trolleybus preservation movement whilst Bruce Lake reports on the latest World News. Gunter Mackinger reports on trolleybus modernisation in the Crimea together with some colour photos on the last days of the Skoda 9Tr in the Crimea. There is a report on a policy document published by the Lonmdon Assembly Liberal Democrats who are proposing an ambitious programme to convert London's buses, taxis and light goods vehicles to electric power by There are also some photos of Newcastle and operating at Carlton Colville and Ashton 87 operating at Sandtoft.
A centre page colour photo spread is included showing scenes at Sandtoft for the Centenary Weekend and also the Sandtoft Gathering. This is a bumper 28 page edition celebrating the th issue of Trolleybus. Bob Rowe looks at Trolleybuses numbered in the UK. Dave Hall looks back at the BTS 50th annivbersary celebrations at Sandtoft including the recommissioning of Manchester back into service.
This is a special 28 page bumper edition to celebrate our 50th anniversary with 6 pages of colour photos included.
There is also a copy of the first ever news sheet issued by the RTS in August Hugh Taylor tells the story of how London spent almost 50 years in France and why it returned to the UK again.
The vehicle is now undergoing restoration at Zamberk near Pardubice. This month sees the introduction of Trolleybus in the new A5 size format. Although smaller in size it has more pages and more content plus some colour photos. This months edition includes: Graham Bilbe reports on the return of Manchester to BTS ownership together with details of its journey to Swindon where it is now undergoing a complete restoration.
There is a look at the 60th anniversary of trolleybus operations in St. Gallen and also trolleybus developments in Salzburg. On the November the first of the new Solaris trolleybuses was launched into service at Eberswalde, a weekend which also saw the 70th anniversary of trolleybus operation in the town. There is a report on the Worldwide Weekend event at Sandtoft which took place on 2 and 3 October Dave Chick looks at the history of trolleybus operation and the 70th anniversary celebrations in Eberswalde, Germany.
Included in the article are some very interesting photos. John Zebedee reports on an eventful Sandtoft Gathering which took place over the weekend of 24 and 25 July David Beach brings us up to date with the latest position on Sponsortrolley, where members kindly donate money towards the rent and maintenance of the BTS fleet. Richard has kindly supplied some additional information.
Dave Hall looks back on Cardiff s service history with Cardiff Corporation and also its history since joing the BTS fleet way back in On Saturday 19 June Stadtbus Winterthur held a celebration of the trolleybus network and the introduction into public service of the first two of their fleet of 21 SwissTrolley3 single-articulated low-floor trolleybuses.
David Bowler was there to record the event. The usual round up of World News is provided by Bruce Lake whilst Dave Lawrence brings us up to date with the latest news on the trolleybus preservation scene.
Part 2 - USA. Australia abandoned the last of its trolleybus systems more than 40 years ago, but there are many interesting survivors, as Graham Bilbe found on a tour in late Graham gives a comprehensive report on what he found. Trolleybuses featured on Pathe News and trolleybus connections on the big and small screen are also featured. August On this month's cover is a remarkable photo of London trolleybuses and , both of which are now preserved.
May May's issue of Trolleybus will be dropping through members' letterboxes shortly. April The April edition of our magazine "Trolleybus" is now available to members via our website and the printed edition will appear in the next few days. February We have a bit of a Baltics theme in the new edition of Trolleybus, which is now available for members to download from our website, with the printed version being distributed in a few days' time.
January This month our cover photo shows the first trolleybus launching an extension of the Jihlava system in the Czech Republic. December In this month's edition of Trolleybus we report on the closure of Wellington's trolleybus system despite hopes of a last-minute reprieve. October This month's edition has a stunning cover photo of the first Van Hool Exqui. September In this month's edition, we commemorate the 50th anniversary of the closure of the Derby trolleybus system, with a fascinating photo feature by Tony Belton, as well as a recollection of a difficult journey for Derby when first preserved.
August This month we have two photo features; Tony Belton says farewell to Tallinn's route 9 and John Zebedee records the celebrations for 65 years of trolleybus operation in Pardubice. July This month's edition of our monthly magazine has features about our purchase of land which will result in the expansion of the Trolleybus Museum at Sandtoft and greater long-term security for the Society's historic fleet and we also report on a very successful BTS weekend at Sandtoft which included the launch into service of Walsall June In the June edition, Stefan Limburg writes a brief history of the Dortmund Trolleybus system, to commenorate the 50th anniversary of its closure.
May This month's edition marks the 50th anniversary of the closure of the Glasgow system and 55 years since the closure of the London system. April This month we pay tribute to the Maidstone trolleybus system, which closed 50 years ago, with Colin Allen looking at the possibility of the continued existence of an early fleet member and Andrew Henbest recalling his visits to the system.
March On this month's cover we have a fine photo of Valparaiso by Sam Fuentes. February This month we have some stunning images of Wellington trolleybuses on the front and rear covers, courtesy Alan Wickens of New Zealand magazine "Under the Wires". January We start the new year with some good news, with features on the recent expansion of the trolleybus networks in Luzern and Salzburg and the move of the latest member of the BTS fleet, Bournemouth , from Winkleigh to the Reading area.
December This month we have a photo feature by Tony Belton to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the closure of the Manchester and Ashton trolleybus systems, we look at the history of Seattle's Breda trolleybuses and their final operation, and we review three books including member Peter Smith's new definitive history of Cardiff's trolleybus system. October There's lots of yellow this month! August Happy birthday London trolleybus no ! July We are proud to announce that the British Trolleybus Society has purchased Bournemouth , the last new trolleybus to enter service in the UK.
June This month we have a splendid commemoration of the Nottingham trolleybus system fifty years after it closed featuring a selection of Tony Belton's photos. May In the May edition of our monthly magazine, Trolleybus, Chris Veasey looks at Minsk's thriving trolleybus network.
The latest news from both the Preservation Scene and World News is also included in this issue. February Tony Belton witnessed the London Transport Q1s being loaded onto ships bound for Spain in and he gives his account together with some classic photos from this time.
October This months issue includes three features about British trolleybus heritage. September Our main feature this month is the story of the thriving trolleybus system in Cluj Napoca, Romania. July This months issue includes two historic features; Dave Hall looks at the history of Reading's service to Caversham Bridge, which closed 50 years ago, and Stefan Limburg tells us the story of the trolleybus in Heilbronn, Germany.
June In the June edition of our monthly magazine we have items about the first Solaris Trollinos and the renovation of the oldest Skoda 15 Tr, Branimir Pantaleev describes the modernisation and expansion of the trolleybus system in Pleven, Bulgaria, and we have a photo feature of trolleybuses in Tallinn in each of the four seasons by Mari-Liis Meisterson.
May The May edition features a history of the Castellon trolleybus system, including the original line which operated in the s. January In November Shanghai became the first trolleybus system to celebrate its th anniversary and a brief report is included. John Zebedee fears for its future and tells us why. There is also a centre page colour spread of trolleybuses passing bridges in Gdynia. The new Portsmouth Trolleybus history book written by David Bowler is reviewed.
September This months edition features our latest trolleybus restoration, Huddersfield August This month we look at two Swiss systems, with a brief history of La Chaux-de-Fonds and an article about the entry into service of the first of Luzern's new Hess Lightram4 double-articulated trolleybuses. SA sports badge for war wounded by W. Infantry Assault Badge in bronze by F. General assault badge by unknown maker. East front medal award document to Gefr.
Krim shield by Karl Wurster K. Infantry assault badge in silver by Brüder Schneider A. Iron cross 2nd class award document to SS-Uscha. Grossmann for anti partisan actions Russia ! General assault badge by C. Death card to SS-Sturmmann W.
Panzer assault badge in silver by C. Juncker, tombac coated variant! Panzerknacker manual with unit stamp! Infantry assault badge in bronze by M. Luftwaffe paratrooper badge by F. East front medal by W. Infantry assault badge in bronze by W. DRK red cross memberships pin "E.
Iron cross clasp 1st class by C. Panzer assault badge in silver 25 assaults by C. Krim shield by W. Luftwaffe bomber clasp in gold with star pennant by C. Panzer assault badge in silver by F. Luftwaffe flak badge by C. Panzer assault badge in silver 25 assaults by J.
Luftwaffe airgunner badge no bolts! Infantry assault badge in silver by W. Iron cross 1st class by O. Iron cross 1st class by F. Iron cross clasp 2nd class by J. General assault badge by F. Luftwaffe bomber clasp in bronze by C. DRL sport badge in bronze by E.
Wound badge in black by W. Kriegsmarine destroyer badge by O. Visor cap box to Leutnant H. Mother cross in gold by P. Panzer assault badge in bronze by F. Iron cross clasp 1st class by B. War Merit Cross 1st class by W. WW1 Iron cross 1st class by P.
Luftwaffe honour goblet grouping to Leutnant A. Solbuch to Oberleutant H. Army paratrooper badge by C. Death card to panzer crew member J. Early lilliput party pin by F.