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Advertisement revenue is necessary to maintain our quality and independence. To do this, please subscribe here. You will receive a welcome e-mail to validate and confirm your subscription. Thank you for your consideration. Die Abwehrstrategien gegen dateilose Angriffe. British Airways verliert Kreditkartendaten von Dateilose Attacken nehmen zu. Hardenberg issued a decree on September 14, , defining the terms by which serfs were to be released "Hardenbergsches Regulierungsedikt".
This could either be done by monetary payment or by releasing title to the land to the former lord. These reforms were applied during the early years of the province's existence. The so-called "regulation" was applied to 10, peasants until , who paid their former lords , taler and handed over , hectares  of farmland to bail themselves out. Tumults arose in in the towns of Stettin and Köslin due to food shortages, as a result, prices for some foods were fixed.
On March 2, , a law was passed  settling the conditions on which peasants and farmers could capitalize their property rights and feudal service duties , and thus get a long-term credit 41 to 56 years to pay back. This law made way for the establishment of Rentenbank credit houses and Rentengut farms. Subsequently, the previous rural structure changed dramatically as farmers, who used this credit to bail out their feudal duties, were now able to self determine how to use their land so-called "regulated" peasants and farmers, regulierte Bauern.
This was not possible before, when the jurisdiction had sanctioned the use of farmland and feudal services according not to property rights, but to social status within rural communities and estates. From to , 4, Rentengut farms were set up, most 2, with a size of 10 to 25 hectares.
Aiming at a farming career, he studied agriculture at the academy in Greifswald -Eldena. From to , he bought and expanded the Varzin estates. The reform passed the House of Lords on December 7, Most importantly, the reform cut the linkage between noble status and the right to vote, the latter now depended on property one had to be above a certain tax threshold and not on status, aiming against the overrepresentation of the knights compared to burghers. On June 29, , a new constitution for the province was passed "Provinzialordnung"  , which entered into force in The Provinzialverband was financed directly from the Prussian state budget.
The Landtag was responsible for streets, welfare, education, and culture. Landownership was not a criterion to become elected anymore.
The provincial Landtag Provinziallandtag was elected by the county representative assemblies "Kreistag" for counties, "Stadtverordnetenversammlung" for town districts for a six years' term. A subordinate Kommunallandtag only existed for Regierungsbezirk Stralsund, until it was abolished in In , a county reform was passed,  allowing more communal self-government. Municipalities hence elected a "Gemeindevorstand" head and a "Gemeindevertretung" communal parliament.
During the First World War, no battles took place in the province. Nevertheless, the war affected society, economy, and administration. During the war, the provincial administrative institutions were subordinate to the military and headed by military officials.
Mobilization resulted in work force shortage affecting all non-war-related industry, construction, and agriculture. Women, minors and POWs partially replaced the drafted men. Import and fishing declined when the ports were blocked. Also coal, gas, and electricity were at times unavailable. When the Treaty of Versailles entered into force on January 10, , the province's eastern frontier became the border to the newly created Second Polish Republic , comprising most of Pomerelia in the so-called Polish Corridor.
After the Kaiser was forced to resign, the province became part of the Free State of Prussia within the Weimar Republic. On January 5, , "Workers' and Soldiers' Councils" "Arbeiter- und Soldatenräte" were in charge of most of the province towns and rural municipalities. The revolution was peaceful, no riots are reported.
The councils were led by Social Democrats , who cooperated with the provincial administration. Of the 21 Landrat officials, only five were replaced, while of the three heads of the government regions "Regierungspräsident" two were replaced in Stralsund and Köslin in On November 12, , a decree  was issued allowing farmworkers' unions to negotiate with farmers Junkers.
The decree further regulated work time and wages for farmworkers. On May 15, , street fights and plunder occurred following Communist assemblies in Stettin. The revolt was put down by the military.
In late August, strikes of farmworkers occurred in the counties of Neustettin and Belgard. The power of the councils however declined, only a few were left in the larger towns in Conservative and right-wing groups evolved in opposition to the revolutions' achievements. Paramilitias "Einwohnerwehr" formed throughout the spring of Pommerscher Landbund units participated in the nationalist Kapp Putsch in Berlin, Members of the "Iron Division" "Eiserne Division" , a dissolved Freikorps in the Baltic , reorganized in Pomerania, where the Junkers hosted them on their estates as a private army.
Also, counter-revolutionary Pomeranians formed Freikorps participating in fights in the Ruhr area. In changed in and , the Free State of Prussia adopted a democratic constitution for her provinces. The constitution granted a number of civil rights to the Prussian population and enhanced the self-government of the provinces.
The provincial and county parliaments Landtag and Kreistag were hence elected directly by the population, including women, in free and secret votes. The "Provinzialverband", which included all self-governmental institutions of the province such as the provincial parliament "Provinziallandtag" , gained influence on the formerly Berlin-led provincial government: The Provinzialverband would hence elect the "Oberpräsident" head of the administration and appoint representatives for the Reichsrat assembly in Berlin.
Furthermore, the Provinzialverband officials could hence self determine how to spend the money they received from Berlin. The border changes however caused a severe decline in the province's economy. Farther Pomerania was cut off from Danzig by the corridor. Former markets and supplies in the now Polish territories became unavailable. Farther Pomeranian farmers had sold their products primarily to the eastern provinces, that were now part of the Second Polish Republic.
Due to high transport costs, the markets in the West were unavailable too. The farmers reacted by modernizing their equipment, improving the quality of their products, and applying new technical methods. As a consequence, more than half of the farmers were severely indebted in The government reacted with the Osthilfe program, and granted credits to favourable conditions.
Stettin particularly suffered from a post-war change in trade routes. Before the territorial changes, it had been on the export route from the Katowice Kattowitz industrial region in now Polish Upper Silesia.
Poland changed this export route to a new inner-Polish railway connecting Katowice with the new-build port of Gdynia within the corridor. As a counter-measure, Prussia invested in the Stettin port since While initially successful, a new economical recession led to the closure of one of Stettin's major shipyard, AG Vulcan Stettin , in The province also reacted to the availability of new traffic vehicles. Roads were developed due to the upcoming cars and buses, four towns got electric street cars, and an international airport was built in Altdamm near Stettin.
The Pomeranian agriculture underwent a crisis. Programs were started to regain soil that had turned into swamps during the wartime, and even to establish new settlements by setting up settlement societies. The results were mixed. On the one hand, , hectares of farmland were settled with 8, new-build settlements  until The settlers originated in Pomerania itself, Saxony , and Thuringia , also refugees from the former Province of Posen settled in the province. On the other hand, people left the rural communities en masse and turned to Pomeranian and other urban centers Landflucht.
Throughout the existence of the Weimar Republic , politics in the province was dominated by the nationalist conservative DNVP German National People's Party ; an entity composed of nationalists, monarchists, radical volkisch and anti-semitic elements, and supported by Pan-German League an old organisation believing in superiority of German people over others.
The university's rector Theodor Vahlen became Gauleiter head of the provincial party in Soon afterwards, he was fired by the university and went bankrupt. In , the party had members, and in December , members. The party was not present in all of the province.
The members were concentrated mainly in Western Pomerania and internally divided. Vahlen retired from the Gauleiter position in and was replaced by Walther von Corswandt , a Pomeranian knight estate holder. Corswandt led the party from his estate in Kuntzow. In the Reichstag elections, the Nazis got 1. Party property was partially pawned.
In , the party gained 4. Corswandt was fired after conflicts with the party's leadership and replaced with Wilhelm von Karpenstein , one of the former students who formed the Pomeranian Nazi party in and since lawywer in Greifswald. He moved the headquarters to Stettin and replaced many of the party officials predominantly with young radicals. In the Reichstag elections of September 14, , the party gained a significant Immediately after their gain of power, the Nazis began arresting their opponents.
In March , people  were arrested, this number rose to  during the following months. In Stettin-Bredow , at the site of the bankrupt Vulcan shipyards, the Nazis set up a short-lived "wild" concentration camp from October to March , where SA maltreated their victims. The Pomeranian SA in had grown to , members.
Oberpräsident von Halfern retired in , and with him one third of the Landrat and Oberbürgermeister mayor officials. Also in , an election was held for a new provincial parliament, which then had a Nazi majority. The "Landeshauptmann" position, the Provinzialverband's head, was not abolished. From , Landeshauptmann would be a Nazi who was acting in line with the Oberpräsident.
The law entered into force on April 1, In , many of the heads of the Pomeranian Nazi-movement were exchanged. From the 27 Kreisleiter officials, 23 were forced out of office by Schwede-Coburg, who became Gauleiter on July 21, and Oberpräsident on July 28, As in all of Nazi Germany , the Nazis established totalitarian control over the province by Gleichschaltung.
In , about 7, Jews lived in Pomerania, of which a third lived in Stettin. The other two thirds were living all over the province, Jewish communities numbering more than people were in Stettin, Kolberg , Lauenburg in Pomerania , and Stolp.
When the Nazis started to terrorize Jews, many emigrated. Twenty weeks after the Nazis seized power, the number of Jewish Pomeranians had already dropped by eight percent. Besides the repressions Jews had to endure in all Nazi Germany , including the destruction of the Pomeranian synagogues on November 9, Reichskristallnacht , all male Stettin Jews were deported to Oranienburg concentration camp after this event and kept there for several weeks.
On February 12 and 13, , 1, to 1, Pomeranian Jews, regardless of sex, age and health, were deported from Stettin and Schneidemühl to the Lublin-Lipowa Reservation , that had been set up following the Nisko Plan in occupied Poland. Among the deported were intermarried non-Jewish women. The deportation was carried out in an inhumane manner. Despite low temperatures, the carriages were not heated. No food had been allowed to be taken along. The property left behind was liquidated.
Up to people perished from the deportation itself. In the Lublin area under Kurt Engel 's regime, the people were subjected to inhumane treatment, starvation and outright murder.
Only a few survived the war. He concludes that "while the deportations of the Jews of Schneidemühl had indeed been planned by the Gestapo to coincide with the terrible events that occurred in Stettin — those actions were not carried out together. The deportations of all Jews from the Gau were primarily planned on orders of Franz Schwede-Coburg , the notorious Gauleiter of Pomerania, in cahoots with several Nazi authorities of Schneidemühl.
He based his statement on doc. According to Cullmann, the following events took place in Schneidemühl: The latter two are known to have planned a Schneidemühl-Aktion as a revenge for the earlier interference by the Reichsvereinigung in the Stettin deportations. In total Jews were arrested during the entire Aktion in and around Schneidemühl.
Those rounded up ranged from two-year-old children to ninety-year-old men. Surviving documents give a grim account of the subsequent Odyssey of those arrested. By then it had been decreed in Berlin that the victims of the round-up should not be sent to Poland but be kept within the so-called Altreich, i.
Over the following eighteen months most of the arrested became ensnared in the Nazi's maw — on a journey of terminal despair. Only one young woman from Schneidemühl survived the hell of Auschwitz-Birkenau and the death marches of mid-January Repressions intensified after Adolf Hitler came to power and led to closing of the school.
During the war, two teachers from Polish school: Resistance groups formed in the economical centers, especially in Stettin , from where most arrests were reported. Resistance is also reported from members of the nationalist conservative DNVP.
The monarchist Herbert von Bismarck-Lasbeck was forced out of office in The newspaper Pommersche Tagespost was banned in after printing an article of monarchist Hans Joachim von Rohr — In , four members of the DNVP were tried for founding a monarchist organization.
Other DNVP members, who had addressed their opposition already before , were arrested multiple times after the Nazis had taken over. Within the Pomeranian provincial subsection of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , resistance was organized within the Pfarrernotbund members in late and Confessing Church "Bekennende Kirche" , the successor organization, headed by Reinold von Thadden-Trieglaff. In March , 55 priests were arrested. Within the Catholic Church, the most prominent resistance member was Greifswald priest Alfons Wachsmann , who was executed in After the failed assassination attempt of Hitler on July 20, , Gestapo arrested thirteen Pomeranian nobles and one burgher, all knight estate owners.
Of those, Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin had contacted Winston Churchill in to inform about the work of the German opposition to the Nazis, and was executed in April Karl von Zitzewitz had connections to the Kreisauer Kreis group.
Among the other arrested were Malte von Veltheim Fürst zu Putbus , who died in a concentration camp , as well as Alexander von Kameke and Oscar Caminecci-Zettuhn , who both were executed. The invasion of Poland by the Nazi Germany on September 1, , which marked the beginning of World War II, was in part mounted from the province's soil. Because the invasion of Poland and later the Soviet Union was a success and the battle front moved far more east Blitzkrieg , the province was not the site of battles in the first years of the war.
Since , the province became a target of allied air raids. The first attack was launched against Stettin on April 21, , and left dead. In October, Anklam was a target. Throughout and early , Stettin's industrial and residential areas were targets of air raids.
Stralsund was a target in October Despite these raids, the province was regarded "safe" compared to other areas of the Third Reich , and thus became a shelter for evacuees primarily from hard hit Berlin and the West German industrial centers. The Pomeranian Wall was renovated in the summer of , and in the fall all men between sixteen and sixty years of age who had not yet been drafted were enrolled into Volkssturm units.
The province of Pomerania became a battlefield on January 26, , when in the beginning of the Red Army 's East Pomeranian Offensive Soviet tanks entered the province near Schneidemühl , which surrendered on February On February 14, the remnants of German Army Group Vistula "Heeresgruppe Weichsel" had managed to set up a frontline roughly at the province's southern frontier, and launched a counterattack Operation Solstice , "Sonnenwende" on February 15, that however stalled already on February On March 1, the First Belorussian Front had launched an offensive from the Stargard and Märkisch Friedland area and succeeded in taking northwestern Farther Pomerania within five days.
Cut off corps group Tettau retreated to Dievenow as a moving pocket until March The land route to the west was blocked since early March. Evacuation orders were issued not at all or much too late.
The only way out of Farther Pomerania was via the ports of Stolpmünde , from which 18, were evacuated, Rügenwalde , from which 4, were evacuated, and Kolberg , which had been declared fortress and from which before the end of the Battle of Kolberg some 70, were evacuated.