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He had succeeded his father, Charles II in Inner Austria in and was energetic in suppressing heresy in the provinces which he ruled. Reformation Commissionms initiated a process of forced recatholicisation and by was being imposed on Graz and Klagenfurt. Outside his lands, Ferdinand II's reputation for strong headed uncompromising intolerance had triggered the religious Thirty Years' War in May in the polarizing first phase, known as the Revolt in Bohemia.

Once the Bohemian Revolt had been put down in , he embarked on a concerted effort to eliminate Protestantism in Bohemia and Austria, which was largely successful as was his efforts to reduce the power of the Diet. The religious suppression of the counter-reformation reached its height in with the Provincial Ordinance Veneuerte Landesordnung. After several initial reverses, Ferdinand II had become more accommodating but as the Catholics turned things around and began to enjoy a long string of successes at arms he set forth the Edict of Restitution in in an attempt to restore the status quo of Peace of Augsburg , vastly complicating the politics of settlement negotiations and prolonging the rest of the war.

Encouraged by the mid-war successes, Ferdinand II became even more forceful, leading to infamies by his armies such as the Frankenburg Lottery Frankenburger Würfelspiel , suppression of the consequent Peasants' Revolt of , and the Sack of Magdeburg By the time of Ferdinand II's death in , the war was progressing disastrously for the Habsburgs, and his son Ferdinand III — who had been one of his military commanders was faced with the task of salvaging the consequences of his father's extremism.

Ferdinand III was far more pragmatic and had been considered the leader of the peace party at court and had helped negotiate the Peace of Prague in However, with continuing losses in the war he was forced to make peace in with the Peace of Westphalia , concluding the war. One of his acts during the latter part of the war was to give further independence to the German states ius belli ac pacis —rights in time of war and peace which would gradually change the balance of power between emperor and states in favour of the latter.

While its ultimate causes prove to be elusive, the war was to prove a roller-coaster as Habsburg over-reach led to it spreading from a domestic dispute to involve most of Europe, and which while at times appearing to aid the Habsburg goal of political hegemony and religious conformity, ultimately eluded them except in their own central territories. The forced conversions or evictions carried out in the midst of the Thirty Years' War , together with the later general success of the Protestants, had greatly negative consequences for Habsburg control of the Holy Roman Empire itself.

Although territorial losses were relatively small for the Habsburgs, the Empire was greatly diminished, the power of the ruler reduced and the balance of power in Europe changed with new centres emerging on the empire's borders. The estates were now to function more like nation states. While deprived of the goal of universal monarchy, the campaigns within the Habsburg hereditary lands were relatively successful in religiously purification, although Hungary was never successfully re-Catholicized.

Only in Lower Austria, and only among the nobility, was Protestantism tolerated. Large numbers of people either emigrated or converted, while others compromised as crypto-Protestants, ensuing relative conformity.

The crushing of the Bohemian Revolt also extinguished Czech culture and established German as the tool of Habsburg absolutism. The Austrian monarchs thereafter had much greater control within the hereditary power base, the dynastic absolutism grip was tightened and the power of the estates diminished.

On the other hand, Austria was much reduced in population and economic might and less vigorous and weakened as a nation-state. The Baroque Austrian Monarchy was established. Despite the dichotomy between outward reality and inner conviction, the rest of the world saw Austria as the epitome of forcible conformity, and conflation of church and state. Studies mostly cite the causes of death due to starvation or as caused ultimately by the lack-of-food induced weakening of resistance to endemic diseases which repeatedly reached epidemic proportions among the general Central European population—the German states were the battle ground and staging areas for the largest mercenary armies theretofore, and the armies foraged among the many provinces stealing the food of those people forced onto the roads as refugees, or still on the lands, regardless of their faith and allegiances.

Both townsmen and farmers were repeatedly ravaged and victimized by the armies on both sides leaving little for the populations already stressed by the refugees from the war or fleeing the Catholic counter-reformation repressions under Ferdinand's governance.

The Austrian lands finally came under one archduchy in , but Ferdinand II quickly redivided them in in the Habsburg tradition by parcelling out "Upper Austria" Further Austria and Tirol to his younger brother Leopold V — who was already governor there. Upper Austria would remain under Leopold's successors till when it reverted to the senior line under Leopold I.

However he was only four at the time, leaving his mother Claudia de' Medici as regent till Despite the setbacks of the Thirty Years' War, Austria was able to recover economically and demographically, and to consolidate the new hegemony, often referred to as, Austrian Baroque. Yet the roots of Habsburg legitimacy, with its reliance on religious and political conformity was to make it increasingly anachronistic in the Age of Enlightenment.

Nevertheless, in the arts and architecture the baroque flourished in Austria. In peacetime Ferdinand III — proved to be a great patron of the arts and a musician. Upon Ferdinand's death in he was succeeded by his son Leopold I — , whose reign was relatively long.

Meanwhile, in "Upper Austria" Ferdinand Charles — although also an arts patron ruled in an absolutist and extravagant style. His brother Sigismund Francis — succeeded him briefly in , but dying without heir in his lands reverted to Leopold I. Thus from Austria was finally reunited under one archduchy. Leopold I's reign was marked by a return to a succession of wars.

Even before he succeeded his father in , he was involved in the Second Northern War — a carry over from Sweden's involvement in the Thirty Years' War, in which Austria sided with Poland, defeating Transylvania , a Swedish ally and Ottoman protectorate. In vain the Transylvanians appealed to Vienna for help, unaware of secret Ottoman-Habsburg agreements.

Fortunately for Austria, Turkey was preoccupied elsewhere during the Thirty Years' War when she would have been vulnerable to attack on her eastern flanks. It was not until that the Turks developed serious intentions with regard to Austria what was a disastrous event for the former, being defeated at the Battle of Saint Gotthard the following year.

The terms, dictated by the need to deal with the French in the west, were so disadvantageous that it infuriated the Hungarians who revolted. To make matters worse, after executing the leaders in, Leopold attempted to impose a counter-reformation sparking a religious civil war. Although he made some concessions in Thus by the early s Leopold was facing Hungarian revolt, backed by the Ottomans and encouraged by the French on the opposite flank.

However the reunions bought a badly needed French neutrality while Austria kept watch to the east. The Ottomans next moved against Austria in in retaliation against Habsburg raids, reaching Vienna in , which proved well fortified, and set about besieging it. The allied forces eventually proved superior and the lifting of the siege was followed by a series of victories in , and , resulting in the Treaty of Karlowitz , Belgrade having fallen in but recaptured in This provided Austrian hegemony over Austria and introduced a large number of Serbs into the Empire, who were to have a major impact on policies over the ensuing centuries.

With the eastern frontier now finally secured, Vienna could flourish Vienna gloriosa and expand beyond its traditional limits. In the east Leopold was learning that there was little to be gained by harsh measures, which policy bought his acceptance and he granted the Hungarian diet rights through the Diploma Leopoldianum of However, on the military front, this merely freed up Austria to engage in further western European wars.

Austria was becoming more involved in competition with France in Western Europe, fighting the French in the War of the League of Augsburg — On the domestic front, Leopold's reign was marked by the expulsion of the Jews from Vienna in , the area being renamed Leopoldstadt.

While in Leopold adopted the so-called Pragmatica , which re-regulated the relationship between landlord and peasant. Most complex of all was the War of the Spanish Succession — , in which the French and Austrians along with their British, Dutch and Catalan allies fought over the inheritance of the vast territories of the Spanish Habsburgs.

Leopold engaged in the war but did not live to see its outcome, being succeeded by his Joseph I in Joseph's reign was short and the war finally came to an end in by which time his brother Charles III had succeeded him. The latter was traded for Sicily in The end of the war saw Austria's allies desert her in terms of concluding treaties with the French, Charles finally signing off in the Treaty of Rastatt in While the Habsburgs may not have gained all they wanted, they still made significant gains through both Rastatt and Karlowitz, and established their power.

The remainder of his reign saw Austria relinquish many of these fairly impressive gains, largely due to Charles's apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg.

For Charles now had succession problems of his own, having only two surviving daughters. His solution was to abolish sole male inheritance by means of the Pragmatic Sanction of In his father Leopold VI had made a pact with his sons that allowed for female inheritance but was vague on details, and left room for uncertainty. The Pragmatic Sanction strengthened this and in addition made provision for the inseparability indivisibiliter ac inseparabiliter of the Habsburg lands.

This was to form the legal basis for the union with Hungary and to legitimise the Habsburg monarchy. It would be confirmed by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of and would last to He then needed to strengthen the arrangement by negotiating with surrounding states. Internal negotiation proved to be relatively simple and it became law by Charles was now willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for other powers' worthless recognitions of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir.

Equally challenging was the question of the heir apparent's marital prospects and how they might influence the European balance of power. The eventual choice of Francis Stephen of Lorraine in proved unpopular with the other powers, particularly France.

War continued to be part of European life in the early 18th century. Austria was involved in the war of War of the Quadruple Alliance and the resulting Treaty of The Hague was to see the Habsburg lands reach their greatest territorial expansion. The later years of Charles's reign also saw further wars against the Turks, beginning with a successful skirmish in —, culminating in the Treaty of Passarowitz. Less successful was the war of — which resulted in the Austrian loss of Belgrade and other border territories at the Treaty of Belgrade.

On the domestic front military and political gains were accompanied by economic expansion and repopulation Schwabenzug , as Austria entered the period of High Baroque with a profusion of new buildings, including the Belvedere — and Karlskirche — , exemplified by the great architects of the period, such as Fischer , Hildebrandt and Prandtauer.

However the Habsburgs' finances were fragile. They had relied on Jewish bankers such as Samuel Oppenheimer to finance their wars, and subsequently bankrupted him.

However the financial system in Austria remained antiquated and inadequate. By the time of Charles' death in the treasury was almost depleted. Habsburg religious intolerance, once unquestioned in the core lands became the subject of more intense scrutiny by when 22, suspected crypto-Protestants were expelled from Salzburg and the Salzkammergut.

Similar intolerance was displayed to the Jewish population in Bohemia and surrounding areas under the Familianten Familiantengesetze in and Worse would have followed had there not also been a realisation that there were economic consequences and that some accommodation was required to the more rationalist ideas of western Europe.

Among these was cameralism which encouraged economic self-sufficiency in the nation state. Thus domestic industries such as the Linzer Wollzeugfabrik were founded and encouraged, but often such ideas were subjugated by vested interests such as aristocracy and church. Rationalist emphasis on the natural and popular were the antithesis of Habsburg elitism and divine authority.

Eventually external powers forced rationalism on Austria. The remaining question was whether it was realistic in the complicated power games of European dynasties. However she did not become Empress immediately, that title passing to Charles VII — the only moment in which the imperial crown passed outside of the Habsburg line from to , Charles VII being one of many who repudiated the Pragmatic Sanction.

As many had anticipated all those assurances from the other powers proved of little worth to Maria Theresa. This was the first of three Silesian Wars fought between Austria and Prussia in this period —, — and — Soon other powers began to exploit Austria's weakness. Charles VII claimed the inheritance to the hereditary lands and Bohemia, and was supported by the King of France, who desired the Austrian Netherlands. The Spanish and Sardinians hoped to gain territory in Italy, and the Saxons hoped to gain territory to connect Saxony with the Elector's Polish Kingdom.

France even went so far as to prepare for a partition of Austria. Austria's allies, Britain, the Dutch Republic, and Russia, were all wary of getting involved in the conflict; ultimately, only Britain provided significant support.

Thus began the War of the Austrian Succession — , one of the more confusing and less eventful wars of European history, which ultimately saw Austria holding its own, despite the permanent loss of most of Silesia to the Prussians. That represented the loss of one of its richest and most industrialised provinces.

For Austria the War of Succession was more a series of wars, the first concluding in with the Treaty of Breslau , the second — with the Treaty of Dresden. The overall war however continued until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle In , following the reign of the Bavarian Elector as Emperor Charles VII , Maria Theresa's husband Francis of Lorraine , Grand Duke of Tuscany , was elected Emperor, restoring control of that position to the Habsburgs or, rather, to the new composite house of Habsburg-Lorraine , [47] Francis holding the titular crown until his death in , but his empress consort Maria Theresa carrying out the executive functions.

The British and Dutch allies who had proved so reluctant to help her in her time of need were dropped in favour of the French in the so-called Reversal of Alliances bouleversement of , under the advice of Kaunitz , Austrian Chancellor — This resulted in the Treaty of Versailles of That same year, war once again erupted on the continent as Frederick, fearing encirclement, launched a pre-emptive invasion of Saxony and the defensive treaty became offensive.

The ensuing Third Silesian War —, part of the larger Seven Years' War was indecisive, and its end saw Prussia holding onto Silesia, despite Russia, France, and Austria all combining against him, and with only Hanover as a significant ally on land. The end of the war saw Austria, poorly prepared at its start, exhausted. Austria continued the alliance with France cemented in with the marriage of Maria Theresa's daughter Archduchess Maria Antonia to the Dauphin , but also facing a dangerous situation in Central Europe, faced with the alliance of Frederick the Great of Prussia and Catherine the Great of Russia.

The Russo-Turkish War of — caused a serious crisis in east-central Europe, with Prussia and Austria demanding compensation for Russia's gains in the Balkans, ultimately leading to the First Partition of Poland in , in which Maria Theresa took Galicia from Austria's traditional ally.

Over the next several years, Austro-Russian relations began to improve. When the War of Bavarian Succession — erupted between Austria and Prussia following the extinction of the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbach dynasty, Russia refused to support Austria, its ally from the Seven Years' War, but offered to mediate and the war was ended, after almost no bloodshed, on 13 May , when Russian and French mediators at the Congress of Teschen negotiated an end to the war.

In the agreement Austria received the Innviertel from Bavaria, but for Austria it was a case of status quo ante bellum. This war was unusual for this era in that casualties from disease and starvation exceeded wounds, and is considered the last of the Cabinet Wars Kabinettskriege in which diplomats played as large a part as troops, and as the roots of German Dualism Austria—Prussia rivalry.

Although Maria Theresa and her consort were Baroque absolutist conservatives, this was tempered by a pragmatic sense and they implemented a number of overdue reforms. Thus these reforms were pragmatic responses to the challenges faced by archduchy and empire, not ideologically framed in the Age of Enlightenment as seen by her successor.

Indeed, Christian Wolff , the architect of German Enlightenment, though born a Habsburg subject, had to leave due to active discouragement of such ideals. The collision with other theories of nation states and modernity obliged Austria to perform a delicate balancing act between accepting changing economic and social circumstances while rejecting their accompanying political change.

The relative failure to deal with modernity produced major changes in Habsburg power and Austrian culture and society. One of the first challenges that Maria Theresa and her advisers faced was to restore the legitimacy and authority of the dynasty, although was slowly replaced by a need to establish the needs of State.

Maria Theresa promulgated financial and educational reforms, with the assistance of her advisers, notably Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gerard van Swieten. Many reforms were in the interests of efficiency. Her financial reforms considerably improved the state finances, and notably introduced taxation of the nobility for the first time, and achieved a balanced budget by At an administrative level, under Haugwitz she centralised administration, previously left to the nobility and church, along Prussian models with a permanent civil service.

Haugwitz was appointed head of the new Directorium in publicis und cameralibus in By it was clear this was not solving Austria's problems and further reform was required.

Kaunitz ' proposal for a consultative body was accepted by Maria Theresa. The Council was inaugurated in January , composed of Kaunitz the state chancellor Staatskanzler , three members of the high nobility Staatsminister , including von Haugwitz as chair Erster Staatsminister , and three knights Staatsrat , which served as a committee of experienced people who advised her. The council of state lacked executive or legislative authority.

This marked Kaunitz' ascendency over von Haugwitz. The Directory was abolished and its functions absorbed into the new united Austrian and Bohemian chancelleries Böhmisch-Österreichische Hofkanzlei in While Von Haugwitz modernised the army and government, van Swieten reformed health care and education. Educational reform included that of Vienna University by Swieten from , the founding of the Theresianum as a civil service academy as well as military and foreign service academies.

An Education Commission Studienhofkommission was established in with a specific interest in replacing Jesuitical control, but it was the papal dissolution of the order in that accomplished this. The confiscation of their property enabled the next step. Aware of the inadequacy of bureaucracy in Austria and, in order to improve it, Maria Theresa and what was now referred to as the Party of Enlightenment radically overhauled the schools system.

In the new system, based on the Prussian one, all children of both genders from the ages of 6 to 12 had to attend school , while teacher training schools were established. Education reform was met with hostility from many villages and the nobility to whom children represented labour.

Maria Theresa crushed the dissent by ordering the arrest of all those opposed. Although the idea had merit, the reforms were not as successful as they were expected to be; in some parts of Austria, half of the population was illiterate well into the 19th century. However widespread access to education, education in the vernacular language, replacement of rote learning and blind obedience with reasoning was to have a profound effect on the relationship between people and state.

Other reforms were in civil rights which were defied under the Codex Theresianus , begun in and finished in Specific measures included abolition of torture , and witch burning. Also in industrial and agrarian policy along cameralist lines, the theory was to maximise the resources of the land to protect the integrity of the state.

Widespread problems arising from war, famine unrest and abuse made implementation of landlord-peasant reforms both reasonable and reasonable. Maria Theresa and her regime had sought a new more direct link with the populace, now that administration was no longer to be farmed out, and this maternalism combined with cameralist thinking required taking a closer interest in the welfare of the peasantry and their protection, which transpired in the s.

However these had been more noted than observed. In the s more meaningful control of rents became practical, further eroding privilege. While reforms assisted Austria in dealing with the almost constant wars, the wars themselves hindered the implementation of those reforms. A pious Catholic, her reforms which affected the relation between state and church in favour of the former, did not extend to any relaxation of religious intolerance, but she preempted Pope Clement XIV 's suppression of the Jesuits in [49] [50] by issuing a decree which removed them from all the institutions of the monarchy.

There was both a suspicion of their excesses and of their tendency to political interference which brought them into conflict with the progressive secularisation of culture. Thus they were removed from control of censorship in , and the educational reforms threatened their control over education. She was hostile to Jews and Protestants but eventually abandoned efforts for conversion, but continued her father's campaign to exile crypto-Protestants mainly to Transylvania as in In she even ordered the expulsion of Jews, but relented under pressure by In her later years though she took some measures to protect the Jewish population.

Maria Theresa had a large family, sixteen in all , of whom six were daughters that lived to adulthood. They were only too aware that their fate was to be used as political pawns. The best known of these was the tragic figure of Maria Antonia — When Maria Theresa's consort Francis died in , he was succeeded by his son Joseph II as emperor — because of male primogeniture.

Joseph was also made co-ruler or co-regent with his mother. Joseph, 24 at the time, was more ideologically attuned to modernity and frequently disagreed with his mother on policy, and was often excluded from policy making. Maria Theresa always acted with a cautious respect for the conservatism of the political and social elites and the strength of local traditions.

Her cautious approach repelled Joseph, who always sought the decisive, dramatic intervention to impose the one best solution, regardless of traditions or political opposition.

Joseph and his mother's quarrels were usually mediated by Chancellor Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz who served for nearly 40 years as the principal minister to both Maria Theresa and Joseph. Joseph frequently used his position as leverage, by threatening resignation. The one area he was allowed more say on was in foreign policy.

Paradoxically [ according to whom? In this area he was successful in siding with Kaunitz in Realpolitik , undertaking the first partition of Poland in over his mother's principled objections. However his enthusiasm for interfering in Bavarian politics by invoking his ties to his former brother in law, Maximilian III , ended Austria in the War of Bavarian Succession in Although largely shut out of domestic policy, he used his time to acquire knowledge of his lands and people, encouraged policies he was in accord with and made magnanimous gestures such as opening the Royal Parks of Prater and Augarten to the public in and Alles für das Volk, nichts durch das Volk —Everything for the people, nothing by the people.

On her husband's death Maria Theresa was therefore no longer empress, the title of which fell to her daughter-in-law Maria Josepha of Bavaria until her death in when the title fell vacant.

As the first of the Habsburg-Lorraine Habsburg-Lothringen Dynasty Joseph II was the archetypical embodiment of The Enlightenment spirit of the 18th century reforming monarchs known as the "enlightened despots".

There was no parliament to deal with. Joseph was always positive that the rule of reason, as propounded in the Enlightenment, would produce the best possible results in the shortest time. He issued edicts—6, in all, plus 11, new laws designed to regulate and reorder every aspect of the empire. The spirit was benevolent and paternal. He intended to make his people happy, but strictly in accordance with his own criteria.

Josephinism or Josephism as his policies were called, is notable for the very wide range of reforms designed to modernize the creaky empire in an era when France and Prussia were rapidly upgrading. Josephinism elicited grudging compliance at best, and more often vehement opposition from all sectors in every part of his empire. Failure characterized most of his projects. Joseph set about building a rational, centralized, and uniform government for his diverse lands, a pyramid with himself as supreme autocrat.

He expected government servants to all be dedicated agents of Josephinism and selected them without favor for class or ethnic origins; promotion was solely by merit. To impose uniformity, he made German the compulsory language of official business throughout the Empire. The Hungarian assembly was stripped of its prerogatives, and not even called together. As President of the Court Audit Office Hofrechenkammer , Count Karl von Zinzendorf — [52] introduced a uniform system of accounting for state revenues, expenditures, and debts of the territories of the Austrian crown.

Austria was more successful than France in meeting regular expenditures and in gaining credit. However, the events of Joseph II's last years also suggest that the government was financially vulnerable to the European wars that ensued after He ended censorship of the press and theatre.

To equalize the incidence of taxation, Joseph ordered a fresh appraisal of the value of all properties in the empire; his goal was to impose a single and egalitarian tax on land. The goal was to modernize the relationship of dependence between the landowners and peasantry, relieve some of the tax burden on the peasantry, and increase state revenues.

Joseph looked on the tax and land reforms as being interconnected and strove to implement them at the same time. The various commissions he established to formulate and carry out the reforms met resistance among the nobility, the peasantry, and some officials.

Most of the reforms were abrogated shortly before or after Joseph's death in ; they were doomed to failure from the start because they tried to change too much in too short a time, and tried to radically alter the traditional customs and relationships that the villagers had long depended upon.

In the cities the new economic principles of the Enlightenment called for the destruction of the autonomous guilds, already weakened during the age of mercantilism. Joseph II's tax reforms and the institution of Katastralgemeinde tax districts for the large estates served this purpose, and new factory privileges ended guild rights while customs laws aimed at economic unity.

The intellectual influence of the Physiocrats led to the inclusion of agriculture in these reforms. In —82 he extended full legal freedom to serfs. Rentals paid by peasants were to be regulated by imperial not local officials and taxes were levied upon all income derived from land. The landlords saw a grave threat to their status and incomes, and eventually reversed the policy.

In Hungary and Transylvania, the resistance of the landed nobility was so great that Joseph compromised with halfway measures—one of the few times he backed down. After the great peasant revolt of Horea, —85, however, the emperor imposed his will by fiat.

His Imperial Patent of abolished serfdom but did not give the peasants ownership of the land or freedom from dues owed to the landowning nobles. It did give them personal freedom. Emancipation of the Hungarian peasantry promoted the growth of a new class of taxable landholders, but it did not abolish the deep-seated ills of feudalism and the exploitation of the landless squatters.

Capital punishment was abolished in , although restored in Allgemeine Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch of and have been seen as providing a foundation for subsequent reforms extending into the 20th century. The first part of the ABGB appeared in , and the criminal code in These reforms incorporated the criminological writings of Cesare Beccaria , but also first time made all people equal in the eyes of the law.

To produce a literate citizenry, elementary education was made compulsory for all boys and girls, and higher education on practical lines was offered for a select few.

He created scholarships for talented poor students, and allowed the establishment of schools for Jews and other religious minorities. In he ordered that the country change its language of instruction from Latin to German, a highly controversial step in a multilingual empire. By the 18th century, centralization was the trend in medicine because more and better educated doctors requesting improved facilities; cities lacked the budgets to fund local hospitals; and the monarchy's wanted to end costly epidemics and quarantines.

Joseph attempted to centralize medical care in Vienna through the construction of a single, large hospital, the famous Allgemeines Krankenhaus, which opened in Joseph's Catholicism was that of Catholic Reform and his goals were to weaken the power of the Catholic Church and introduce a policy of religious toleration that was the most advanced of any state in Europe. In he issued a charter of religious toleration for the Jews of Galicia , a region with a large, Yiddish -speaking, traditional Jewish population.

The charter abolished communal autonomy whereby the Jews controlled their internal affairs; it promoted " Germanization " and the wearing of non-Jewish clothing. Probably the most unpopular of all his reforms was his attempted modernization of the highly traditional Roman Catholic Church. Calling himself the guardian of Catholicism, Joseph II struck vigorously at papal power.

He tried to make the Catholic Church in his empire the tool of the state, independent of Rome. Clergymen were deprived of the tithe and ordered to study in seminaries under government supervision, while bishops had to take a formal oath of loyalty to the crown.

He financed the large increase in bishoprics, parishes, and secular clergy by extensive sales of monastic lands. As a man of the Enlightenment he ridiculed the contemplative monastic orders, which he considered unproductive, as opposed to the service orders.

Church courts were abolished and marriage was defined as a civil contract outside the jurisdiction of the Church. Joseph sharply cut the number of holy days and reduced ornamentation in churches.

He greatly simplified the manner of celebration. Critics alleged that these reforms caused a crisis of faith, reduced piety and a decline in morality , had Protestant tendencies, promoted Enlightenment rationalism and a class of liberal bourgeois officials, and led to the emergence and persistence of anti-clericalism.

Many traditional Catholics were energized in opposition to the emperor. The Habsburg Empire developed a policy of war and trade as well as intellectual influence across the borders. While opposing Prussia and Turkey, Austria was friendly to Russia, though tried to remove Romania from Russian influence. In foreign policy, there was no Enlightenment, only hunger for more territory and a willingness to undertake unpopular wars to get the land.

Joseph was a belligerent, expansionist leader, who dreamed of making his Empire the greatest of the European powers. Joseph's plan was to acquire Bavaria, if necessary in exchange for Belgium the Austrian Netherlands. This failure caused Joseph to seek territorial expansion in the Balkans, where he became involved in an expensive and futile war with the Turks — , which was the price to be paid for friendship with Russia. The Balkan policy of both Maria Theresa and Joseph II reflected the Cameralism promoted by Prince Kaunitz, stressing consolidation of the border lands by reorganization and expansion of the military frontier.

Transylvania had been incorporated into the frontier in and the frontier regiments became the backbone of the military order, with the regimental commander exercising military and civilian power. Populationistik was the prevailing theory of colonization, which measured prosperity in terms of labor. Joseph II also stressed economic development. Habsburg influence was an essential factor in Balkan development in the last half of the 18th century, especially for the Serbs and Croats.

The nobility throughout his empire hated Joseph: In Belgium and Hungary everyone resented the way he tried to do away with all regional government, and to subordinate everything to his own personal rule in Vienna.

The movement strikes just the hours on a gong. The clock was made by the Seth Thomas Clock Co. About — Click to view larger image Click to view larger image Click to view larger image Click to view larger image Click to view larger image Click to view larger image.

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H- 41" X W" X D- 4". Click to view larger image Click to view larger image Click to view larger image. The case is made of oak. I have a white niece,and little white 2nd cousins,from this type of union. Now granted, both sides of my families are Creoles,so there is a higher chance when mixed with new white boood. Then what about someone like Eartha Kitt,her daughter is white. You must log in to post a comment.

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