Damals wurden die regionalen Busunternehmen im VVS vollständig integriert. Ein Grund das Jubiläum zu feiern - mit 25 innovativen Bussen. Seit über sieben Jahren ist er Mitarbeiter in der Verkehrsüberwachung beim Amt für öffentliche Ordnung und arbeitet sich dort gerade in ein neues Sachgebiet ein.
Oktober startet die kommende Feinstaubalarm-Periode. Es soll einen Anreiz bieten, das Auto stehen zu lassen. Martin Schairer hat am Am Wochenende vom September gilt in Bussen und Bahnen das Motto "5 für 1". September, nehmen Apotheker im Gesundheitsamt kostenlose Medikamentenchecks vor.
Interessierte sind herzlich eingeladen mehr Seit Ende August hat es geöffnet. Nach eineinhalb Jahren Laufzeit von "Sport bewegt Vielfalt - Stadtentwicklung gemeinsam aktiv gestalten" blickt die Landeshauptstadt auf eine stolze Bilanz.
Energieeinsparung, Energieeffizienz und Erzeugung regenerativer Energien. The Hotel Silber English: Silver , previously occupied by other forms of political police , was occupied by the Gestapo in to detain and torture political dissidents. The nearby court at Archive Street German: As the Memorial at Stuttgart North records,  between the first train arrived 1 December , and took around 1, men to Riga and , more than 2, Jews from all over Württemberg  were deported to Theresienstadt , Auschwitz , and the ghettos at Riga and Izbica.
Of them, only held in Internment survived the Shoah. Stuttgart, like many of Germany's major cities, was savaged throughout the war by Allied air raids. For the first four years of the war, successful air raids on the city were rare because of the capable defense of the city by Wehrmacht ground forces, the Luftwaffe , and artificial fog.
The heaviest raid took place on 12 September , when the Royal Air Force, dropping over , bombs — including 75 blockbusters — leveled Stuttgart's city center, killing people in the resulting firestorm. The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Stuttgart in April Although the attack on the city was to be conducted by the US Seventh Army's th Infantry Division , French leader Charles de Gaulle found this to be unacceptable, as he felt the capture of the region by Free French forces would increase French influence in post-war decisions.
The French 5th Armored Division then captured Stuttgart on 21 April , encountering little resistance. Truman was unable to get De Gaulle to withdraw troops from Stuttgart until after the final boundaries of the zones of occupation were established.
Stuttgart then became capital of Württemberg-Baden , one of the three areas of Allied occupation in Baden-Württemberg, from until The military government of the American occupation zone established a Displaced persons camp for displaced persons , mostly forced labourers from Central and Eastern European industrial firms in the area. Byrnes at the Stuttgart Opera House. In , the city applied to become the capital of the soon to-be Federal Republic of Germany , and was a serious contender against Frankfurt , Kassel , and Bonn.
All these cities were examined by the Parlamentarischer Rat ,  but ultimately Bonn won the bid when the Republic was founded on 23 May The immediate aftermath of the War would be marked by the controversial efforts of Arnulf Klett , the first Oberbürgermesiter of Stuttgart, to restore the city.
Klett favored the idea of a modernist Automotive city with functional divisions for residential, commercial and industrial areas according to the Athens Charter.
Klett demolished both ruins and entire streets of largely undamaged buildings without rebuilding them to their original visage, a move that earned him much scorn from his contemporaries. Klett also dramatically expanded the public transportation of Stuttgart with the Stuttgart Stadtbahn and, in , initiated a city partnership with the French city of Strasbourg as part of an attempt to mend Franco-German relations.
It would be finalized in and is still active today. On 25 April , the other two parts of the former German states of Baden and Württemberg , South Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern merged and formed the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg , with Stuttgart as its capital.
The city's population, halved by the Second World War, began sudden growth with the mass influx of German refugees expelled from their homes and communities by the Soviets from the late s until to the city.
Economic migrants , called " Gastarbeiter ," from Italy , and later Greece and Turkey but primarily from Yugoslavia , came flocking to Stuttgart because of the economic wonder called the " Wirtschaftswunder " unfolding in West Germany.
In the late s , the municipal district of Stammheim was center stage to one of the most controversial periods of German post-war history. Stammheim Prison , built from to , came to be the place of incarceration for Ulrike Meinhof , Andreas Baader , Gudrun Ensslin , and Jan-Carl Raspe , members of a communist terrorist organization known as the Red Army Faction , during their trial at the Oberlandesgericht Stuttgart in Several attempts were made by the organization to free the terrorists during the " German Autumn " of that culminated in such events as the kidnap and murder of Hanns-Martin Schleyer and the hijacking of Lufthansa Flight When it became clear, after many attempts to free the inmates including the smuggling of three weapons into the prison by their lawyer,   that the terrorists could not escape and that they would receive Life sentencing , the terrorists killed themselves [g] in April in an event remembered locally as the " Todesnacht von Stammheim ," "Night of Death at Stammheim.
Mikhail Gorbachev , while on a trip to West Germany to offer a spot for a West German astronaut in a Soviet space mission,  visited Stuttgart 14 June and was the honored guest of a sumptuous reception held at the Stuttgart.
Since the monumental happenings of the s, Stuttgart has continued being an important center of not just Europe, but also the world. In , the World Horticultural Exposition , for which two new bridges were built,  and World Athletics Championships of that year took place in Stuttgart in the Killesburg park and Mercedes-Benz Area respectively, bringing millions of new visitors to the city.
In , Stuttgart applied for the Summer Olympics but failed in their bid when the German Committee for the Olympics decided on Leipzig to host the Olympics in Germany.
Stuttgart still experienced some growing pains even long after its recovery from the Second World War. In , the inner city become the focal point of the protests against the controversial Stuttgart 21f. During the sexual assaults perpetrated by gangs of migrant men across Germany in , at least 72 complaints were filed to city police of which 17 were sexual assault reports.
At the height of the Cold War over 45, Americans were stationed across over 40 installations in and around the city. These units of soldiers retrained in patrol and policing provided the law and order in the American zone of occupied Germany until the civilian German police forces could be re-established.
The withdrawal of VII Corps caused a large reduction in the US military presence in the city and region and led to the closure of the majority of US installations in and around Stuttgart which resulted in the layoff of many local civilians who had been career employees of the US Army.
Local residents refer to the basin as the Stuttgarter Kessel , or "Stuttgart cauldron ," during the summer months because of its hot and humid climate that is frequently warmer than the surrounding countryside of Württemberg. Stuttgart covers an area of Stuttgart experiences an Oceanic climate Cfb ,  just like the British Isles and Northern France , but it is very extreme at times.
In spite of the heat, there is no dry season and the city receives frequent but moderate precipitation year-round. Typically during summer months, the nearby hills, Swabian Alb mountains, and Black Forest , Schurwald , and Swabian-Franconian Forest act as a shield from harsh weather but the city can be subject to thunderstorms, whereas in the winter periods snow may last for several days. Winters last from December to March. Snow cover tends to last no longer than a few days although it has been known to last several weeks at a time as recently as Summers last from May until September.
Though it is a rare occurrence in Stuttgart, the city sometimes receives damaging hailstorms , such as in July At the center of Stuttgart lies its main square, Schlossplatz. As well as being the largest square in Stuttgart, it stands at the crossover point between the city's shopping area, Schlossgarten park which runs down to the river Neckar , Stuttgart's two central castles and major museums and residential areas to the south west.
Although the city center was heavily damaged during World War II,  many historic buildings have been reconstructed and the city boasts some fine pieces of modern post-war architecture. Buildings and squares of note in the inner city include:. A number of significant castles stand in Stuttgart's suburbs and beyond as reminders of the city's royal past.
Other landmarks in and around Stuttgart include see also museums below: At the center of Stuttgart lies a series of gardens which are popular with families and cyclists. Because of its shape on a map, the locals refer to it as the Green U. The Green U starts with the old Schlossgarten, castle gardens first mentioned in records in The modern park stretches down to the river Neckar and is divided into the upper garden bordering the Old Castle , the Main Station , the State Theater and the State Parliament building , and the middle and lower gardens — a total of 61 hectares.
The park also houses Stuttgart planetarium. At the far end of Schlossgarten lies the second Green U park, the larger Rosensteinpark which borders Stuttgart's Wilhelma zoo and botanical gardens. Planted by King William I of Württemberg , it contains many old trees and open areas and counts as the largest English-style garden in southern Germany.
In the grounds of the park stands the former Rosenstein castle, now the Rosenstein museum. Beyond bridges over an adjacent main road lies the final Green U park, Killesbergpark or 'Höhenpark' which is a former quarry that was converted for the Third Reich garden show of and was used as a collection point for Jews awaiting transportation to concentration camps.
The park has been used to stage many gardening shows since the s, including the Bundesgartenschau and International Gardening Show, and runs miniature trains all around the park in the summer months for children and adults.
The viewing tower Killesbergturm offers unique views across to the north east of Stuttgart. On the northern edge of the Rosensteinpark is the famous ' Wilhelma ', Germany's only combined zoological and botanical garden.
The whole compound, with its ornate pavilions, greenhouses, walls and gardens was built around as a summer palace in moorish style for King Wilhelm I of Württemberg. It currently houses around animals and some plant species and contains the biggest magnolia grove in Europe.
There are a number of natural and artificial lakes and ponds in Stuttgart. The largest is the Max-Eyth-See , which was created in by reclaiming a former quarry and is now an official nature reserve.
It is surrounded by an expansive open area overlooked by vineyards on the banks of the river Neckar near [Mühlhausen]. There are expansive areas of woodland to the west and south west of Stuttgart which are popular with walkers, families, cyclists and ramblers. The lakes are also used for local water supplies.
In the Feuersee area in the west of Stuttgart lies one of two 'Feuersee's literally fire lakes , striking for its views of the Johanneskirche St. Johns church across the lake, surrounded by nearby houses and offices. The other Feuersee can be found in Vaihingen. The city boasts the largest mineral water deposits in Europe after Budapest ,   with over springs within the urban area.
Stuttgart is known for its rich cultural heritage, in particular its State Theatre Staatstheater and State Gallery Staatsgalerie. The Staatstheater is home to the State opera and three smaller theatres and it regularly stages opera, ballet and theatre productions as well as concerts. Stuttgart is also home to one of Germany's most prestigious symphony orchestras , the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra , with famous English conductor Sir Roger Norrington , who developed a distinct sound of that orchestra, known as the Stuttgart Sound.
They mostly perform in the Liederhalle concert hall. The city offers two Broadway-style musical theaters, the Apollo and the Palladium Theater each approx. Ludwigsburg Palace in the nearby town of Ludwigsburg is also used throughout the year as a venue for concerts and cultural events. Some of the stairs were elaborately decorated with fountains and plantings.
The Schleyerhalle sports arena is regularly used to stage rock and pop concerts with major international stars on European tour.
Stuttgart's Swabian cuisine, beer and wine have been produced in the area since the 17th century and are now famous throughout Germany and beyond.
In October the Stuttgart Ministry of Agriculture announced that the European Union was to officially recognise the pasta dish Maultaschen as a "regional specialty", thus marking its significance to the cultural heritage of Baden-Württemberg. In it was also one of the host cities of the Football World Cup. Stuttgart is home to five of the eleven state museums in Baden-Württemberg. The museum traces the rich history of Württemberg with many artifacts from the its dukes, counts and kings, as well as earlier remnants dating back to the stone age.
On the Karlsplatz side of the Old Castle is a museum dedicated to the memory of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg , former resident of Stuttgart who attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler on 20 July Especially devoted to the National Library of acquiring, cataloging, archiving and provision of literature about Württemberg, called Württembergica. It forms the center of the library system of the University, ensuring the supply of research, teaching and studies with literature and other information resources.
It stands next to the members of the University and citizens of the city are available. Since , it is located right next to the WLB and belongs since as a department of the Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg in. It includes the stocks of the county and the duchy Württemberg until , the Württemberg central authorities of the 19th and 20th century and the early 19th century as a result of media coverage of fallen Württemberg gentlemen and imperial cities in South Württemberg. The Stadtarchiv Stuttgart is the archive in charge of the provincial capital Stuttgart.
The archived material is in principle open to the public and can be consulted in the reading room in Bellingweg 21 in Bad Cannstatt. The Landeskirchliche Archives preserve the stocks of the Württemberg church leaders and of other ecclesial bodies and institutions: It also has the microfilms of all church books especially baptism, marriage, and family Death's Register in the area of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg.
The "Archive instigator" is dedicated to the dead of the city. Since , the instigators are working on a memoir about "The dead town". So far, about 5, names of victims of the regime of National Socialism have been acquired.
There are two large tours that are available to visitors to Stuttgart. The population of Stuttgart declined steadily between , and , Then low levels of unemployment and attractive secondary education opportunities led to renewed population growth, fuelled especially by young adults from the former East Germany.
In April there were , inhabitants in the city. More than half of the population today is not of Swabian background, as many non-Swabian Germans have moved here due to the employment situation, which is far better than in most areas of Germany.
Since the s, many foreigners have also immigrated to Stuttgart to work here as part of the " Gastarbeiter " program ; another wave of immigrants came as refugees from the Wars in Yugoslavia in the s. The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks 22, , Greeks 14, , Italians 13, , Croats 12, , Serbs 11, followed by immigrants from Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Portugal, Poland, France, and Austria.
The religious landscape in Stuttgart changed in as a direct result of the Reformation. However, since the number of Protestants in Stuttgart has dropped from around , to , Muslims, Jews and those who either followed no religion or one not accounted for in official statistics. Unemployment in the Stuttgart Region is above the average of Baden-Württemberg , but very low compared to other metropolitan areas in Germany.
In November , before the annual winter rise, unemployment in the Stuttgart Region stood at 3. Unemployment in the actual city of Stuttgart during the same periods stood at 5.
Stuttgart ranks as one of the safest cities in Germany. In , crimes were committed in Stuttgart for every , inhabitants versus the average for all German cities of 12, When Stuttgart was run as a or within the Duchy of Württemberg , it was governed by a type of protectorate called a Vogt appointed by the Duke. After this role was fulfilled by a City Director or 'Stadtdirektor'. Since the title of Oberbürgermeister the nearest equivalent of which would be an executive form of Lord Mayor in English has applied to Stuttgart and all other Württemberg towns of more than 20, inhabitants.
At the end of the Second World War, French administrators appointed the independent politician Arnulf Klett as Burgomaster , a role he fulfilled without interruption until his death in Since this time Stuttgart has mainly been governed by the CDU.
As the capital of Baden-Württemberg , Stuttgart is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the State Parliament, or Landtag as well as all Baden-Württemberg state departments.
In June , for the first time the Greens gained the most seats in a German city with more than , inhabitants, effectively changing the balance of power in the city council. According to the German newspaper Die Welt , the main reason for the Greens' victory was disgruntlement with the controversial Stuttgart 21 rail project.
The city of Stuttgart is administratively divided into 23 city districts  — five "Inner" districts and 18 "Outer" districts.
Each district has a Council headed by a District Director. From there, the districts are broken down into Quarters. Since the changes in city statutes 1 July and 1 January , the total number of quarters rose to The Stuttgart area is known for its high-tech industry. Stuttgart is home to Germany's ninth biggest exhibition center, Stuttgart Trade Fair which lies on the city outskirts next to Stuttgart Airport. Hundreds of SMEs are still based in Stuttgart often termed Mittelstand , many still in family ownership with strong ties to the automotive, electronics, engineering and high-tech industry.
Stuttgart has the highest general standard of prosperity of any city in Germany. The automobile and motorcycle were purported to have been invented in Stuttgart by Karl Benz and subsequently industrialized in by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach at the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. As a result, it is considered to be the starting point of the worldwide automotive industry and is sometimes referred to as the 'cradle of the automobile'.
A number of auto-enthusiast magazines are published in Stuttgart. The region currently has Germany's highest density of scientific, academic and research organisations. No other region in Germany registers so many patents and designs as Stuttgart. In addition to several universities and colleges e. University of Stuttgart , University of Hohenheim , Stuttgart Institute of Management and Technology  and several Stuttgart Universities of Applied Sciences , the area is home to six Fraunhofer institutes, four institutes of collaborative industrial research at local universities, two Max-Planck institutes and a major establishment of the German Aerospace Centre DLR.
Many leading companies in the financial services sector are headquartered in Stuttgart with around credit institutes in total e. Stuttgart is the only city in Germany where wine grapes are grown within the urban area, mainly in the districts of Rotenberg, Uhlbach and Untertürkheim. Wine-growing in the area dates back to when, according to State archives, Blaubeuren Abbey was given vineyards in Stuttgart as a gift from 'Monk Ulrich'.
In the 17th century the city was the third largest German wine-growing community in the Holy Roman Empire. Wine remained Stuttgart's leading source of income well into the 19th century. Stuttgart is still one of Germany's largest wine-growing cities with more than hectares of vine area, thanks in main to its location at the center of Germany's fourth largest wine region, the Württemberg wine growing area which covers 11, hectares 28, acres and is one of only 13 official areas captured under German Wine law.
The continuing importance of wine to the local economy is marked every year at the annual wine festival 'Weindorf'. Stuttgart also has several famous breweries such as Stuttgarter Hofbräu , Dinkelacker , and Schwaben Bräu.
Stuttgart and its region have been home to some significant figures of German thought and literature, the most important ones being Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Hölderlin. The city, in its engineering tradition as the cradle of the automobile, has also always been a fruitful place of research and innovation. In the 18th century, the moat was filled. In , the castle's dirnitz and two towers were destroyed by fire.
Paul Schmitthenner renovated the castle in The arcaded courtyard of the castle itself shows architectural motifs of early Renaissance from Italy. King Charles I of Württemberg and his wife Olga are buried beneath the castle church. The inner courtyard houses a monument to Eberhard I.
The Old Castle stands adjacent to its replacement, the New Castle , which was built in the late 18th century. On the Karlsplatz side of the Old Castle is a museum dedicated to the memory of Claus von Stauffenberg a former resident of Stuttgart who attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler on 20 July In the Landesmuseum's exhibits are Stone Age and Roman artifacts, paintings, and recounting of ancient regional history.