O'Day's World Series appearances include four of the first five played. In his first three World Series, a two-umpire system was used, with the two alternating between working home plate and the bases.
In his next three Series, four umpires were assigned, but they worked in two-man crews that officiated alternating games; not until the Series did all four work every game. During the World Series, O'Day was the base umpire when Bill Wambsganss executed the only unassisted triple play in Series history. Although it was not known at the time, O'Day became the oldest umpire in history at age 65 years, 9 months when he began the season; it was long believed that Emslie still held the mark, having retired at the end of the season at age 65 years, 8 months.
At the end of his career, O'Day's total of 3, games as an umpire placed him behind only Tommy Connolly 4, and Emslie 4, in major league history. O'Day called balls and strikes for no-hitters in four decades, a distinction that has been matched only by Harry Wendelstedt ; he was behind the plate when Ted Breitenstein April 22, , Johnny Lush May 1, , Hod Eller May 11, and Jesse Haines July 17, each accomplished the feat. O'Day served for many years on the major league rules committee, and became known for its many heated debates over rule changes and applications.
In , the committee was considering the issue of game-winning hits in the bottom of the last inning; O'Day argued that batters should only be credited with as many bases as were necessary to score the winning run, even if the ball was hit over the fence for an apparent home run , saying, "you can't score runs after a game is over", while sportswriter Fred Lieb counter-argued that a fair ball hit over the fence must be counted as a home run regardless of the situation.
Lieb's position was adopted by the committee, with O'Day complaining that Lieb was simply trying to accumulate more home runs for his friend Babe Ruth ; O'Day did, however, succeed in preventing the rule from being applied retroactively. O'Day began his career in an era during which only one umpire worked in most games, and he spent the remainder in a time when only two were used. In , O'Day was quoted as saying that he preferred the single-man system and that he had run into more trouble in games with two umpires.
In The National League Story , Lee Allen described O'Day as "a crusty old pitcher who had umpired in the league as early as and had the scars to prove it. He did, however, develop a lasting friendship with fellow umpire Emslie, one of his pitching opponents in the s, after both had been in the league for a number of years. He also enjoyed long friendships with John Heydler , who had been a fellow umpire in the s and later became O'Day's supervisor as NL president, and with Connie Mack , who was O'Day's catcher for three years in Washington.
O'Day became an umpiring scout after he retired from active umpiring in In March , he was said to be seriously ill with a stomach condition and it had become "doubtful if he will ever get up again". O'Day was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame on December 3, by the Hall's new Pre-Integration Era Committee , which considers candidates from the era prior to once every three years, and was inducted the following July. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. However, he is listed in the Census as a 1-year-old.
The family name was entered in both the and censuses as "Day". Retrieved May 4, Retrieved December 26, Retrieved January 31, Fell Off a Coaster". Retrieved 30 December Retrieved December 31, Retrieved April 8, The New York Times. The Biographical History of Baseball. Retrieved 31 December Retrieved July 30, Pop Snyder — Will White O.
Members of the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Alexander Bender Blyleven M. Williams Willis Wynn Young. The model presented in this video combines a game theoretic approach with mechanism design to examine the influence of competition on welfare maximization by politicians. In recent years, immoral behavior in firms as well as scandals in the banking sector and non-profit organizations have been widely discussed. Often it is groups rather than individuals who are responsible for these immoral acts.
This video presents an economic experiment that investigates whether groups are more likely to lie than individuals; and why this might be the case. In recent years, corporations have become more decentralized and decision-making power within the company has moved from the top level to lower levels of management. As she explains in this video, they have used recent mathematical models of trade and have combined these with [ Opinions on the impact of financial penalties on the profitability of banks are divided: One view argues that they obstruct the functioning of the banking sector; another one says that these penalties are simply another cost of doing business.
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While democracy provides freedom and stability, progress is only ensured by a market economy that allows for innovation. The ultimatum game is one of the most famous experiments in economics. It involves two players, one of them receives a sum of money which he has to share with a second player. If the responder rejects, neither of the players receives any money. Mathematically, the first [ The research presented in this video tackles the old philosophical question on the reasons for social order with the means of modern economics.
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In the theoretical model and data analysis presented in this video it is shown that prolongation of life expectancy is a turning point for economic development: The experiment presented in this video explores the interaction of reward schemes and production functions on team effort.
GOERG explains that unequal rewards seem to yield higher efficiency for complementary production functions i. He concludes that inequality may have a [ Firms, be it coffee shops or airlines, often try to bind customers with exclusivity rebates rewarding loyalty.
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The research presented in this video analyzes the relationship between law and morality, and asks what role morality plays in social interactions. Using empirical findings from social psychology, behavioral law and economics, it is deduced what people generally perceive as just or fair. The findings show that moral rules enable cooperation and how moral intuitions impact rule following behavior.
In the banking model of maturity transformation presented in this video, the features of the shadow banking sector and its influences on financial stability are analyzed. However, liquidity guarantees from banks to shadow banks and a growing shadow banking [ The research presented in this video focuses on the question how empathy affects economic choice-behavior.
In the large-scale natural field experiment presented in this video different treatments to induce compliance with the law were tested: Potential evaders of TV license fees in Austria received different mailings — one presenting the prospects of financial and legal consequences, one appealing to morals and one communicating high compliance rates. Panel data from states dating from to cannot substantiate a positive relation between the existence of anti-trust law and democratic development; the empirical findings even suggest that there is only a weak link between [ The findings of this research thus extend the domain of the Coase theorem.
In the experiment, with a society of two individuals and a single commodity, a good ends up with the individual who values it most even if only relative property rights — i. The model presented in this video is designed to compare different options for the relation between banks and the public sector and different types of subsidies regarding their effects on social welfare.
Comparing five options for interlinkage shows that the best choice often are development banks, if they are not allowed to compete with the private banking sector. In this case firms that would not get money from private [ The paper presented in this video, from the field of financial mathematics, addresses the problem of building optimal loan portfolios and develops a novel computational method to do so even if with an infinite number of loans.
The new tool was tested on a data-set of million mortgage loans, and was able to solve this high-dimensional problem. The field experiment presented in this video shows that the level of donations can be raised by suggesting a concrete contribution amount to potential donors. As the paper presented in this video exhibits, the two tasks are closely connected: In the laboratory experiment presented in this video, experimental CEOs were compensated either through stock options or restricted company stock.
It shows that stock options induce excessive risk-taking in some cases and that company performance is generally better under compensation through restricted company stock. Departing from the standard model of economics with the assumption that humans have fixed preferences, or tastes, more recent behavioral insights show that preferences are influenced by past consumption in a way that the status quo is often valued higher than alternatives.
There is no global regulation, let alone any hard-law treaties, that deal with the interactions between humans and animals even though these have been globalized in many areas, such as for food, agriculture, or the procurement of pets. Analyzing international law and comparing domestic laws, she has [ In the new digital economy the problem of data protection is not only heatedly debated but also has become the subject of academic research. New business models are emerging based on the current digital transformation of manufacturing and the digital transformation of many smart products.
These smart products, such as autonomous cars, collect a huge number of data. Who owns the data and how should the [ The research presented in this video looks into the rightfulness of engaging other states in the protection of EU borders. The European Union does not have sufficient legitimacy and is not well accepted by its citizens which leads to a negative impact on the process of European integration. First of all, the way the European Parliament, the democratic body, is elected and works is too far from the citizens.
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The research presented in this video deals with the understanding of contracts and contract law. How do lawgivers define what makes a good parent?
As she explains in this video, her research team adopted a comparative inner-Islamic approach. They did not only examine the legal aspects of the question but they also put each [ In an empirical analysis of the German and the South African constitutional courts and the Canadian Supreme Court, the study presented in this video examines the use of the concept of balancing.
Instead, they restrain themselves and employ proportionality as an instrument of rationality review, i. Stroke is one of the most frequent neurological disorders, befalling over The research underlying this video explores the role of non-invasive methods for stroke diagnosis and therapy.
The use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI , which produces image-signals on the basis of the oxygen-concentration in the blood, allows for the detection of increased or decreased [ Almost everybody has to deal with stress sometimes. But what is stress? It is a reaction of the body to a challenging situation which elicits a stress response in the body.
The most prominent stress-related disorders are psychiatric disorders and metabolic disorders. Specifically, as Schmidt explains in [ The studies presented in this video show that a focus on social interaction in neuroscience helps to examine the neural mechanisms that are at work in human brains during social interaction.
Using a combination of fMRI and eye-tracking, the brain activity during social interaction is observed. Only in the last decades research found that experiences change the human brain. The research presented in this video deals with the question how making music reorganizes neural pathways in the brain. Among others, the brain [ Knowledge of medical treatments is usually not equally distributed between physicians and patients. Often, doctors need to analyze the available data in the medical domain and then communicate the results about possible options to the patient.
As he describes in this video, his research team found that it is not only the patients who have [ High-level athletes, such as basketball and volleyball players, show more than fifty percent prevalence of developing tendinopathy — an injured tendon — compared to the normal population. As he describes in this video, the researchers measured and compared the [ In the s researchers showed that damaged nerves in the spinal cord have the ability to regrow.
Chemical engineers contribute to the field of spinal cord repair by developing biomaterial scaffolds that support cell and nerve growth inside the body after an injury. The special architecture of the developed [ The use of continuum robots — robots that are not composed of rigid links and joints but are continuously bending structures — opens up completely new possibilities for surgery: With this tool surgeons can reach locations in the human body which they would not be able to reach with traditional surgical instruments.
This enables them to e. There are a vast number of [ For more than one hundred years, scientists have been working to uncover how turbulent flows occur. This would enable them among other things to predict how pollutants spread in water or how pollen travel in air.
The researchers focused on a single particle in a fluid and followed it [ The silicon-based technologies that is used today to access and compute information is reaching its limits. To further improve computing capacity, this essentially two-dimensional technology, as STUART PARKIN puts it, needs to give way to the three-dimensional approach of spintronic devices that use not only electric current but also the spin of the electrons.
In this video, he explains how the research team created a new [ The theory of materials science investigates the electronic and structural properties of advanced materials, nano-structures and bio-molecules. In the study explained in this video, the researchers present a novel theoretical method to describe, design and control how molecules and materials in combination with photons may lead to new states of matter with novel emerging properties.
The research aims to theoretically find [ Understanding the behavior of liquids in porous materials is important for very different areas of our lives, ranging from the recovery of oil from rock to water holding capacities of different soils. The study presented in this video is dedicated to the quest for the mechanisms behind these processes. The greatest developments in particle physics have been achieved with the help of particle accelerators.
To answer open questions on particles, even stronger accelerators are needed but conventional technology encounters limits. Recent research has shown that solid materials can be classified based on their electronic band structure using the abstract mathematical concept of topology.
Theoretical models suggest that a large part of our universe is made up of dark matter - this has not yet been directly observed but the existence of dark matter is inferred from its gravitational effects such as the rotation of galaxies. Currently researchers work on directly detecting these particles instead of just predicting them theoretically. For this, researchers employ a combination of spectroscopy and laser methods. The specific research question presented in this video investigates how a very fundamental system, such as [ The objectives of the research in theoretical physics presented in this video are to understand the fundamental physics behind the properties of black holes and to find out whether black holes are unique in their way of information-processing.
Firstly it shows that quantum criticality is the basic principle of the [ There is an extensive discussion about the connections between climate change related disasters and armed conflicts like civil wars. Their new approach connects natural disasters with large economic effects, potentially related conflicts as well as the socioeconomic contexts. The findings show that in countries with a [ We can see progress all over the world, such as technological transformations, or rising life expectancies and literacy rates.
Are these improvements in material conditions accompanied by a change in moral standards? So far, such questions have mainly been discussed in the area of philosophy.
As he explains in [ In recent years DNA testing has increasingly been used by immigration authorities to facilitate family reunifications and to verify the family relations of applicants. This has affected immigration procedures and the understanding of the concept of family. Why do some cities grow and are prosperous whereas others shrink and decline? As he explains in this video, he examined population growth or decline in a given city as well as economic variables, such as industry, age, or social structure and used these data for [ During the refugee crisis of , about 1.
In particular, he researched how different actor groups, from volunteers and leftist activists to the police, worked closely together. Employing an organizational network analysis in five Mediterranean countries, as he [ India has been known to be a state that never changes. For this, he looked at historical processes and compared processes that have achieved successful change to processes that have failed [ Throughout history sortition was often used as an election mechanism for public executive functions.
Political systems such as Ancient Athens or Venice during the middle ages elected some of the executive positions by drawing lots. FREY compares those methods with actual processes such as political elections or market decisions in order to investigate the advantages and [ International organizations, such as UNESCO or the EU, which were founded by nation states, rely on the proper planning of their budgets to maintain their infrastructure. As he explains in this video, he and his co-researchers established two main results after evaluating standing orders, public documents as well as internal documents, and after [ He outlines the elements modern personality cults have in common, their aims and functioning as well as their ideological self-justification.
Adequate response to the increasingly high threat of terrorism is a challenge for governments in the beginning of the 21st century. The historical analysis presented in this video examines ways to approach terrorist threats.
FREY explains, the findings show a new perspective on how to address the terrorist challenge. The specific policy proposals resulting from the study are decentralization of the state [ The research presented in this video exposes the inner mechanisms at work in political discourse. One hour of sunlight is enough to power the entire planet for over a year.
As he explains in this video, the perovskite semiconductor — a new material that was discovered about five years ago — has great potential to advance the use of solar energy. The recovering of our 3D-world with only one camera is a challenge in many fields ranging from self-driving cars to plastic surgery.
Modelling the movement of a camera in addition to the geometry of the depicted world and using new algorithms allow the recovery of more pictures in real-time. The algorithms compute the highest [ Many android apps that try to use SSL to secure network communication fail in doing so and are insecure. By detecting such security flaws and interviewing the developers, the study presented in this video shows the necessity of rethinking how developers interact with security code.
As shown, developers are not, as often implied, infallible. This means that prevention of security problems should be carried out by [ How do humans understand each other?
One unique aspect is the evolution of more than six thousand languages on earth. In order to use language meaningfully a certain social cognitive infrastructure is needed. This infrastructure turns out to be prior to the acquisition of language in humans. Our society is becoming more and more diverse concerning cultural, linguistic, ethnic and religious aspects. Therefore, children growing up in a pluralistic society need intercultural competence as a key skill.
Schools are a prominent place where children can acquire this competence and some studies suggest that physical education is a particularly adept subject to transmit intercultural competence because it combines [ Decision-making in a complex world is a challenge.
Some people are better at it than others. Why is this so? For this, Funke and his team need to identify the personality traits of their study participants and they use simulated situations to analyze their [ The study presented in this video evaluates data from observational towers, satellite pictures and other published data to compare the impact of land-cover change and land management change on climate.
The results show that land management change within the same vegetation e. The Arctic sea ice is the ice that is floating on the Arctic Ocean. In recent decades, this pack ice has been disappearing very rapidly. So the question arises when the Arctic sea ice will be completely gone. Submissions will consist of regular full papers of pages, plus additional pages for references, formatted following the EMNLP guidelines. In addition, shared task participants will be invited to submit short papers suggested length: Both submission and review processes will be handled electronically.
Note that regular papers must be anonymized, while system descriptions do not need to be. Research papers that have been or will be submitted to other meetings or publications must indicate this at submission time, and must be withdrawn from the other venues if accepted and published at WMT We will not accept for publication papers that overlap significantly in content or results with papers that have been or will be published elsewhere. It is acceptable to submit work that has been made available as a technical report or similar, e.
This double submission policy only applies to research papers, so system papers can have significant overlap with other published work, if it is relevant to the system description. We encourage individuals who are submitting research papers to evaluate their approaches using the training resources provided by this conference and past workshops, so that their experiments can be repeated by others using these publicly available corpora.
These also include an archive of announcements from earlier workshops. For general questions, comments, etc. For task-specific questions, please contact the relevant organisers.
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