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I have some reinventing to do. Tourism has become an important economic factor over the decades. Weimar is now a popular residence of people working in Erfurt and Jena , both less than 20 minutes away.
In , a fire broke out at the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. The library contains a 13,volume collection including Goethe's masterpiece Faust , in addition to a music collection of the Duchess. An authentic Lutheran Bible from was saved from the fire. Over one million volumes were housed in the library, of which forty to fifty thousand were damaged beyond repair.
A number of books were shock-frozen in Leipzig to save them from rotting. The library was reopened in The municipal terrain is hilly; the height of the city centre in Ilm valley is approximately m of elevation.
To the north, the terrain rises to Ettersberg , the city's m high backyard mountain. The range of hills in the south of Weimar rises up to m and is part of the Ilm Saale Plate Muschelkalk formation. The eastern, central and western parts of the municipal territory are in agricultural use, whereas the Ettersberg and some southern areas are wooded. Weimar has a humid continental climate Dfb or an oceanic climate Cfb according to the Köppen climate classification system.
Annual precipitation is only millimeters Light snowfall occurs, mainly from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long. The city itself is divided into 10 inner urban and 11 suburban districts. The centre is formed by the district Altstadt old town and the Gründerzeit districts Nordvorstadt in the north, Parkvorstadt in the east and Westvorstadt in the south and west.
Later additions are Südstadt in the south and Schönblick in the southwest. Finally, there are the Plattenbau settlements, constructed during the GDR period, Weststadt and Nordstadt as well as two industrial areas in the north and west. The 11 suburban districts are villages which got incorporated during the 20th century; however, they have mostly stayed rural to date:. Over the centuries, Weimar remained a small town of less than 5, inhabitants. When it became the capital of Saxe-Weimar in , population growth was stimulated and population increased from 3, in to 6, in Around the year , Weimar had 7, inhabitants.
Their number grew constantly over the years to 13, in , 28, in and 35, at the beginning of World War I. During the interwar period, the new capital of Thuringia saw a population boom, which led to 65, inhabitants in Since that time, the population levels have stagnated.
The years to brought a moderate growth of approximately 0. Suburbanization played only a small role in Weimar. It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders.
Like other eastern German cities, Weimar has only a small amount of foreign population: Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Weimar are Vietnamese people , Russians and Ukrainians. During recent years, the economic situation of the city improved: Due to the official atheism in former GDR , most of the population is non-religious. Its two central squares are the Marktplatz in the south with the town hall and the Herderplatz in the north with the main church. Despite its medieval origin, there are only a few medieval buildings, many being destroyed by frequent fires throughout the city's history.
Most buildings in this area date back to the 17th and 18th century. Furthermore, Weimar has two old suburbs: James' Church medieval origin and another one in the south around Frauenplan square.
The majority of buildings in these areas are also of 17th- and 18th-century origin. During the late 19th and early 20th century, Weimar grew in all directions. Because of its function as an "officials' city", the houses in this areas are more extensive than in many comparable Gründerzeit quarters in Germany. The most uptown areas are those right and left of the Park an der Ilm in the southeast, whereas the western and northern quarters are more basic and mixed with industrial areas in their outer parts.
During the GDR period, two new Plattenbau settlements were developed in the west and the north of the city. After , suburbanization occurred for a short time and the rural districts of Weimar saw significant growth is a big city. The city's main church is the evangelical St. Peter and Paul at Herderplatz also known as Herderkirche. It was rebuilt in late-Gothic style after a fire around Between and , the interior got a Baroque renewal by Johann Adolf Richter. Johann Gottfried Herder was the dean of the church between and The second old evangelical church of Weimar is St.
James at Rollplatz, rebuilt in in Baroque style. The catholic parish church of Weimar is devoted to Sacred Heart and was built between and in historicist forms imitating Florence Cathedral. Another church is the Russian-Orthodox Chapel within the historic cemetery. It was built in as the funerary chapel of Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna and was one of the first Russian-styled buildings in Germany.
Interesting churches in the suburban districts are the Lutheran parish church of Gelmeroda , which was the inspiration for many paintings of Lyonel Feininger , and the Lutheran parish church of Oberweimar , which was a former monastery, and is a good example of Gothic architecture in Weimar. Due to its function as a ducal residence, Weimar is rich in early-modern castles and palaces.
The biggest one is the Stadtschloss at Burgplatz in the city centre. Today's four-wing building was started after a great fire in The tower and the Bastille building at its south-western edge are relics of older castles in this place.
The Fürstenhaus at Platz der Demokratie was the first parliament building in Weimar, established in the s. Today it is in use by the Weimar School of Music. The Yellow Castle at Grüner Markt was built in and is the municipal library today. The neighbouring Red Castle is also part of the library and was built in the s.
The Wittumspalais is a smaller widow mansion near Theaterplatz, established in Outbildings of the ducal residence are the Husarenstall , the later residence of Charlotte von Stein at Ackerwand street, the Marstall s at Kegelplatz, today used as Thuringian State Archive and the Reithaus s within the Park an der Ilm.
Furthermore, there are some impressive ducal country residences around Weimar. They are marked by their beautiful parks and gardens. Schloss Belvedere , south-east of Weimar was built between and in Baroque style with an orangery near to a ducal hunting forest.
North-east of Weimar, at Ettersburg lies another ducal hunting lodge next to the Ettersberg mountain and its forest. It was established between and also in Baroque style. The third summer residence, Schloss Tiefurt , is located in Tiefurt , north-east of Weimar.
The small lodge in a wide park in Ilm valley was rebuilt in in late-Baroque forms. Weimar first celebrated the Onion Market in Stalls typically offer onion plaits, themed arts and crafts and numerous onion-based foods, including onion cakes, onion soups and onion breads. The festival also hosts numerous beer gardens, live music, fairground attractions and a Ferris wheel.
There are several clubs with live music once or twice a week. There is also a student club in the city centre which also features disco and live music events on Friday- and Saturday nights Kasseturm. There are four cinemas including a 3-D cinema,  and a Bowling Alley  in the Weimar Atrium, the local mall.
Industry has never been dominant in Weimar, nevertheless there were several big factories from different sectors until After reunification, nearly all factories got closed, either because they failed the adoption of free market economy or because the German government sold them to west German businessmen who closed them to avoid competition to their own enterprises.
On the other hand, the federal government started early in the s to subsidize the foundation of new companies, but it took long time before the economic situation got stabilized around Since this time, unemployment decreased and overall, new jobs develop. Today, there are many small and medium-sized companies in Weimar with electro-technics and engineering in focus.
Nevertheless, settlement of new factories isn't much in focus of the local government, because it concentrates itself on developing tourism and services. The biggest companies with production in Weimar are Bayer pharmaceutical factory , Coca Cola beverages and Hydrema dump truck factory. A new big commercial zone was established in the s in the neighbouring municipality of Nohra with focus on logistics and distribution. Due to its tradition as a capital, Weimar is a centre of governmental services to date.
Furthermore, creative branches like media, advertising, architecture and design are important for Weimar's economy. The most important sector is tourism with 3, hotel beds, , visitors and , overnight stays in hotels in and a large number of German one-day visitors. Other services like retail, trade fairs and specialized hospitals are more brought by the near neighbour cities Erfurt and Jena with their infrastructure. Weimar is located at the Bundesautobahn 4 Frankfurt — Dresden.
A bypass road around Weimar was built in the s in the north and west; the eastern and southern continuation are in discussion, but not in definite planning because of some difficulties in routing. It was largely extended in the s, but the anticipated rise in passengers did not occur so that there is only rare air traffic, mostly to Mediterranean holiday regions.
Other flights are carried out via Frankfurt Airport , which can be reached in 3 hours, and prospective via Berlin Brandenburg Airport , which is scheduled to open in and is accessible within 3 hours.
Biking is getting more and more popular since the construction of quality cycle tracks began in the s. Additionally, there are some theme routes like the Goethe cycle track and the Feininger cycle track. For inner city every-day traffic exist some cycle lanes along several main streets. Bike renting is offered in city centre. For a small city, Weimar is well served by city bus routes, which also serve all of the annex towns and villages.
An hourly bus route serves the Buchenwald Memorial and oldtimer buses go in city's historical centre. All bus routes are connected at Goethe Square in city centre, most run furthermore to the main station. Between and were trams in operation. Trolleybus service started in and was ceased in After the reunification, the educational system was realigned.
Some academies were combined into the new Bauhaus University , founded in with approximately 4, students and focus on architecture, design and media. The Liszt School of Music is a university focussed on music and music education founded in with students today. Furthermore, there are three regular Gymnasiums , the Musikgymnasium Schloss Belvedere , an elite boarding school with focus on music, and the Thuringia International School with an international and foreign language curriculum.
The current mayor Peter Kleine , independent is in office since Weimar is twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German city. For the parliamentary republic, see Weimar Republic. For other uses, see Weimar disambiguation. Location of Weimar within Thuringia. List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany.