Imperial Cleaning

History of Bavaria

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Both brothers then engaged in warfare with the other branches of the family and with the citizens of Munich. William III, a loyal servant of the emperor Sigismund, died in , leaving an only son, Adolf, who died five years later; and Ernest, distinguished for his strength, died in Albert, whose attempts to reform the monasteries earned him the surname of Pious, almost became the elected king of Bohemia in He died in , leaving five sons, the two elder of whom, John IV and Sigismund , reigned together until John's death in The third brother, Albert, who had been educated for the church, joined his brother in , and when Sigismund abdicated two years later became sole ruler, in spite of the claims of his two younger brothers.

Albert IV , called the Wise, added the district of Abensberg to his possessions, and in became involved in the Landshut War of Succession which broke out for the possession of Bavaria-Landshut on the death of George the Rich. Albert's rival was George's son-in-law Rupert, formerly bishop of Freising and also successor of Philip as count palatine of the Rhine. The emperor Maximilian I , interested as archduke of Austria and count of Tirol, interfered in the dispute.

Rupert died in , and the following year an arrangement was made at the Diet of Cologne by which the emperor and Philip's grandson, Otto Henry, obtained certain outlying districts, while Albert by securing the bulk of George's possessions united Bavaria under his rule.

In Albert decreed that the duchy should thenceforth pass according to the rules of primogeniture, and in other ways endeavoured to consolidate Bavaria. He was partially successful in improving the condition of the country, and in Bavaria formed one of the six circles into which Germany was divided for the maintenance of peace.

In spite of the decree of , William IV was compelled to grant a share in the government in to his brother Louis X , an arrangement which lasted until the death of Louis in William followed the traditional Wittelsbach policy of opposition to the Habsburgs until in he made a treaty at Linz with Ferdinand , the king of Hungary and Bohemia.

This link strengthened in , when the emperor Charles V obtained the help of the duke during the war of the league of Schmalkalden by promising him in certain eventualities the succession to the Bohemian throne, and the electoral dignity enjoyed by the count palatine of the Rhine. William also did much at a critical period to secure Bavaria for Catholicism.

The reformed doctrines had made considerable progress in the duchy when the duke obtained extensive rights over the bishoprics and monasteries from the pope. He then took measures to repress the reformers, many of whom were banished; while the Jesuits , whom he invited into the duchy in , made the Jesuit College of Ingolstadt , their headquarters in Germany. William, whose death occurred in March and was succeeded by his son Albert V , who had married a daughter of Ferdinand of Habsburg, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand I.

Early in his reign Albert made some concessions to the reformers, who were still strong in Bavaria; but about he changed his attitude, favoured the decrees of the Council of Trent , and pressed forward the work of the Counter-Reformation. As education passed by degrees into the hands of the Jesuits, the progress of Protestantism was effectually arrested in Bavaria. Albert V patronised art extensively. Artists of all kinds flocked to his court in Munich, and splendid buildings arose in the city, while Italy and elsewhere contributed to the collection of artistic works.

The expenses of a magnificent court led the duke to quarrel with the Landschaft the nobles , to oppress his subjects, and to leave a great burden of debt when he died in October The succeeding duke, Albert's son, William V called the Pious , had received a Jesuit education and showed keen attachment to Jesuit tenets.

He secured the Archbishopric of Cologne for his brother Ernest in , and this dignity remained in the possession of the family for nearly years. In he abdicated in favour of his son Maximilian I , and retired to a monastery, where he died in Maximilian I found the duchy encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his vigorous rule effected a remarkable change. The finances and the judicial system were reorganised, a class of civil servants and a national militia founded, and several small districts were brought under the duke's authority.

The result was a unity and order in the duchy which enabled Maximilian to play an important part in the Thirty Years' War ; during the earlier years of which he was so successful as to acquire the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity which had been enjoyed since by the elder branch of the Wittelsbach family. In spite of subsequent reverses, Maximilian retained these gains at the Peace of Westphalia in During the later years of this war Bavaria, especially the northern part, suffered severely.

In the Swedes invaded, and when Maximilian violated the treaty of Ulm in , the French and the Swedes ravaged the land. After repairing this damage to some extent, the elector died at Ingolstadt in September , leaving his duchy much stronger than he had found it. The recovery of the Upper Palatinate made Bavaria compact; the acquisition of the electoral vote made it influential; and the duchy was able to play a part in European politics which internal strife had rendered impossible for the past four hundred years.

The international position won by Maximilian I adds to the ducal house, on Bavaria itself its effect during the next two centuries were most dubious. Maximilian's son, Ferdinand Maria — , who was a minor when he succeeded, tried to repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging agriculture and industries and building or restoring numerous churches and monasteries.

In , moreover, he again called a meeting of the diet, which had been suspended since His good work, however, was largely undone by his son Maximilian II Emanuel — , whose far-reaching ambition set him warring against the Ottoman Empire and, on the side of France, in the great struggle of the Spanish succession. He shared in the defeat at the Battle of Blenheim , near Höchstädt , on 13 August ; his dominions were temporarily partitioned between Austria and the elector palatine by the Treaty of Ilbersheim , and only restored to him, harried and exhausted, at the Treaty of Baden in ; the first Bavarian peasant insurrection , known as the Bloody Christmas of Sendling , having been crushed by the Austrian occupiers in Untaught by Maximilian II Emmanuel's experience, his son, Charles Albert — , devoted all his energies to increasing the European prestige and power of his house.

The death of the emperor Charles VI proved his opportunity: The price he had to pay, however, was the occupation of Bavaria itself by Austrian troops; and, though the invasion of Bohemia in by Frederick II of Prussia enabled him to return to Munich, at his death on 20 January it was left to his successor to make what terms he could for the recovery of his dominions. Maximilian III Joseph — by the peace of Füssen , signed on 22 April , obtained the restitution of his dominions in return for a formal acknowledgment of the Pragmatic Sanction.

He was a man of enlightenment , did much to encourage agriculture, industries and the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, founded the Academy of Sciences at Munich, and abolished the Jesuit censorship of the press. On 30 December , when he died, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession passed to Charles Theodore , the elector palatine.

After a separation of four and a half centuries, the Electorate of the Palatinate , to which the duchies of Jülich and Berg had been added, was thus reunited with Bavaria.

So great an accession of strength to a neighbouring state, whose ambition she had just reason to fear, proved intolerable to Austria, which laid claim to a number of lordships — forming one-third of the whole Bavarian inheritance — as lapsed fiefs of the Bohemian, Austrian and imperial crowns.

These were at once occupied by Austrian troops, with the secret consent of Charles Theodore himself, who was without legitimate heirs, and wished to obtain from the emperor the elevation of his natural children to the status of princes of the Empire. By the peace of Teschen 13 May the Innviertel was ceded to Austria, and the succession secured to Charles of Zweibrücken.

For Bavaria itself Charles Theodore did less than nothing. He felt like a foreigner among foreigners, and his favourite scheme, the subject of endless intrigues with the Austrian cabinet and the immediate cause of Frederick II 's League of Princes Fürstenbund of , was to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands and the title of king of Burgundy. For the rest, the enlightened internal policy of his predecessor was abandoned. The funds of the suppressed Society of Jesus , which Maximilian Joseph had destined for the reform of the educational system of the country, were used to endow a province of the knights of St John of Jerusalem , for the purpose of combating the enemies of the faith.

The government was inspired by the narrowest clericalism, which culminated in the attempt to withdraw the Bavarian bishops from the jurisdiction of the great German metropolitans and place them directly under that of the pope.

On the eve of the Revolution the intellectual and social condition of Bavaria remained that of the Middle Ages. In , French revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate; in the French, under Moreau , invaded Bavaria itself and advanced to Munich where they were received with joy by the long-suppressed Liberals, and laid siege to Ingolstadt.

Charles Theodore , who had done nothing to prevent wars or to resist the invasion, fled to Saxony and abandoned a regency whose members signed a convention with Moreau, by which he granted an armistice in return for a heavy contribution 7 September Between the French and the Austrians, Bavaria was now in a bad situation.

Even before the death of Charles Theodore on 16 February the Austrians had again occupied the country, in preparation for renewing the war with France. Maximilian IV Joseph of Zweibrücken the new elector succeeded to a difficult inheritance.

Though both he and his all-powerful minister, Maximilian von Montgelas sympathized more with France than Austria, the state of the Bavarian finances and the fact that the Bavarian troops were scattered and disorganized placed him helpless in the hands of Austria.

On 2 December , the Bavarian armies were involved in the Austrian defeat at Hohenlinden , and Moreau once more occupied Munich. In view of the scarcely disguised ambitions and intrigues of the Austrian court, Montgelas now believed that the interests of Bavaria lay in a frank alliance with the French Republic; he succeeded in overcoming the reluctance of Maximilian Joseph and on 24 August a separate treaty of peace and alliance with France was signed in Paris.

Thus in , in accordance to this agreement, in the territorial rearrangements consequent on Napoleon's suppression of the ecclesiastical states and of many free cities of the Empire , Bavaria received the bishoprics of Würzburg , Bamberg , Augsburg and Freisingen , part of that of Passau , the territories of twelve abbeys, and seventeen cities and villages. The whole form a compact territory which more than compensated for the loss of her outlying provinces on the Rhine.

Montgelas now aspired to raise Bavaria to the rank of a first-rate power and he pursued this object during the Napoleonic epoch with consummate skill, allowing fully for the preponderance of France — so long as it lasted — but never permitting Bavaria to sink, like so many of the states of the Confederation of the Rhine , into a mere French dependency. In the war of , in accordance with a treaty of alliance signed at Würzburg on 23 September, Bavarian troops, for the first time since the days of Charles VII , fought side by side with the French, and by the Treaty of Pressburg , signed on 26 December, the Principality of Eichstädt , the Margraviate of Burgau , the Lordship of Vorarlberg , the counties of Hohenems and Königsegg-Rothenfels , the lordships of Argen and Tettnang , and the city of Lindau with its territory were to be added to Bavaria.

On the other hand, Würzburg, obtained in , was to be ceded by Bavaria to the elector of Salzburg in exchange for Tirol. By the 1st article of the treaty the emperor acknowledged the assumption by the elector of the title of king, as Maximilian I.

On 15 March he ceded the Duchy of Berg to Napoleon. For the internal constitution of Bavaria also the French alliance had noteworthy consequences. Maximilian himself was an " enlightened " prince of the 18th-century type, whose tolerant principles had already grievously offended his clerical subjects. Montgelas was a firm believer in drastic reform "from above", and, in , had discussed with the rump of the old estates the question of reforms.

But the revolutionary changes introduced by the constitution proclaimed on 1 May were due to the direct influence of Napoleon. A clean sweep was made of the medieval polity surviving in the somnolent local diets and corporations. In place of the old system of privileges and exemptions were set equality before the law, universal liability to taxation, abolition of serfdom , security of person and property, liberty of conscience and of the press.

A representative assembly was created on paper, based on a narrow franchise and with very limited powers, but was never summoned. In Bavaria was again engaged in war with Austria on the side of France. The Tyroleans rose up against the Bavarian authority and succeeded three times in defeating Bavarian and French troops trying to retake the country. Austria lost the war of the Fifth Coalition against France, and got even harsher terms in the Treaty of Schönbrunn in Often glorified as Tirol's national hero, Andreas Hofer , the leader of the uprising, was executed in in Mantua , having lost a third and final battle against the French and Bavarian forces.

By the treaty signed at Paris on 28 February Bavaria ceded southern Tirol to Italy and some small districts to Württemberg , receiving as compensation parts of Salzburg, the Innviertel and Hausruck and the principalities of Bayreuth and Regensburg.

So far the policy of Montgelas had been brilliantly successful; but the star of Napoleon had now reached its zenith and already the astute opportunist had noted the signs of the coming change. The events of followed; in Bavaria was summoned to join the alliance against Napoleon, the demand being passionately backed by the crown prince Louis and by Marshal Wrede ; on 8 October the treaty of Ried was signed, by which Bavaria threw in her lot with the Allies. Montgelas announced to the French ambassador that he had been compelled temporarily to bow before the storm, adding "Bavaria has need of France".

For Bavaria's share in the war see Napoleonic Campaigns. She received as compensation, besides Würzburg and Aschaffenburg , the Palatinate region on the left bank of the Rhine and certain districts of Hesse-Darmstadt and of the former Abbacy of Fulda. But with the collapse of France the old fears and jealousies against Austria were revived in full force, and Bavaria only agreed to these cessions treaty of Munich , 16 April under the promise that, in the event of the powers ignoring her claim to the Baden succession in favour of that of the line of the counts of Hochberg , she should receive also the Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine.

The question was thus left open, the tension between the two powers remained high, and war was only averted by the authority of the Grand Alliance.

At the congress of Aix the question of the Baden succession was settled in favour of the Hochberg line, without the compensation stipulated in the treaty of Munich; and by the treaty of Frankfurt, signed on behalf of the four great powers on 20 July , the territorial issues between Bavaria and Austria were settled, in spite of the protests of the former, in the general sense of the arrangement made at Vienna.

A small strip of territory was added, to connect Bavaria with the Palatinate, and Bavarian troops were to garrison the federal fortress of Mainz.

Meanwhile, on 1 February , Montgelas had been dismissed; and Bavaria had entered on a new era of constitutional reform. This implied no breach with the European policy of the fallen minister. In the new German confederation Bavaria had assumed the role of defender of the smaller states against the ambitions of Austria and Prussia. Montgelas had dreamed of a Bavarian hegemony in South Germany similar to that of Prussia in the north. It was to obtain popular support for this policy and for the Bavarian claims on Baden that the crown prince pressed for a liberal constitution, the reluctance of Montgelas to concede it being the cause of his dismissal.

On 26 May the constitution was proclaimed. The parliament was to consist of two houses; the first comprising the great hereditary landowners, government officials and nominees of the crown; the second, elected on a very narrow franchise, comprising representatives of the small land-owners, the towns and the peasants. By additional articles the equality of religions was guaranteed and the rights of Protestants safeguarded, concessions which were denounced at Rome as a breach of the Concordat , which had been signed immediately before.

The result of the constitutional experiment hardly justified the royal expectations; the parliament was hardly opened 5 February before the doctrinaire radicalism of some of its members, culminating in the demand that the army should swear allegiance to the constitution, so alarmed the king that he appealed to Austria and Germany, undertaking to carry out any repressive measures they might recommend.

On 13 October , his son Ludwig I succeeded him. Ludwig proved an enlightened patron of the arts and sciences, who transferred the University of Landshut to Munich, which, by his magnificent taste in building, he transformed into one of the most beautiful cities of the continent. The earlier years of his reign were marked by a liberal spirit and the reform, especially, of the financial administration; but the revolutions of frightened him into reaction, which was accentuated by the opposition of the parliament to his expenditure on building and works of art.

In , the Ultramontanes came into power with Karl von Abel — as prime minister. The Jesuits now gained the upper hand; one by one the liberal provisions of the constitution were modified or annulled; the Protestants were harried and oppressed; and a rigorous censorship forbade any free discussion of internal politics. On 17 February , Abel was dismissed for publishing his memorandum against the proposal to naturalize Lola, who was an Irishwoman; and the Protestant Georg Ludwig von Maurer took his place.

The new ministry granted the certificate of naturalisation; but riots, in which Ultramontane professors of the university took part, resulted. The professors were deprived, the parliament dissolved, and, on 27 November, the ministry dismissed. Lola Montez, created Countess Landsfeld, became supreme in the state; and the new minister, Prince Ludwig of Öttingen-Wallerstein — , in spite of his efforts to enlist Liberal sympathy by appeals to pan-German patriotism, was powerless to form a stable government.

His cabinet was known as the Lolaministerium ; in February , stimulated by the news from Paris Revolution of in France , riots broke out against the countess; on 11 March the king dismissed Öttingen, and on 20 March, realizing the force of public opinion against him, abdicated in favour of his son, Maximilian II.

Before his abdication Ludwig had issued, on 6 March , a proclamation promising the zealous co-operation of the Bavarian government in the work of German freedom and unity see Revolutions of in the German states. To the spirit of this Maximilian was faithful, accepting the authority of the central government at Frankfurt and on 19 December the sanctioning of the official promulgation of the laws were passed by the German parliament.

But Prussia was henceforth the enemy, not Austria. In refusing to agree to the offer of the imperial crown to Frederick William IV , Maximilian had the support of his parliament. In withholding his assent to the new German constitution, by which Austria was excluded from the Confederation , he ran indeed counter to the sentiment of his people; but by this time the back of the revolution was broken, and in the events which led to the humiliation of Prussia at Olmütz in , and the restoration of the old diet of the Confederation, Bavaria was safe in casting in her lot with Austria see History of Germany.

The guiding spirit in this anti-Prussian policy, which characterised Bavarian statesmanship up to the war of , was Baron Karl Ludwig von der Pfordten — , who became minister for foreign affairs on 19 April His idea for the ultimate solution of the question of the balance of power in Germany was the so-called Trias , i.

In internal affairs his ministry was characterised by a reactionary policy less severe than elsewhere in Germany, which led none-the-less from onward to a struggle with the parliament, which ended in the dismissal of Pfordten's ministry on 27 March He was succeeded by Karl Freiherr von Schrenk von Notzing — , an official of Liberal tendencies who had been Bavarian representative in the diet of the Confederation.

Important reforms were now introduced, including the separation of the judicial and executive powers and the drawing up of a new criminal code. In foreign affairs Schrenk, like his predecessor, aimed at safeguarding the independence of Bavaria, and supported the idea of superseding the actual constitution of the Confederation by a supreme directory, in which Bavaria, as leader of the purely German states, would hold the balance between Prussia and Austria.

Bavaria accordingly opposed the Prussian proposals for the reorganisation of the Confederation, and one of the last acts of King Maximilian was to take a conspicuous part in the assembly of princes summoned to Frankfurt in by the emperor Francis Joseph. Maximilian was succeeded on 10 March by his son Ludwig II , a youth of eighteen. The government was at first carried on by Schrenk and Pfordten in concert. Schrenk soon retired, when the Bavarian government found it necessary, in order to maintain its position in the Prussian Zollverein , to become a party to the Prussian commercial treaty with France, signed in In the complicated Schleswig-Holstein question Bavaria, under Pfordten's guidance, consistently opposed Prussia, and headed the lesser states in their support of Frederick of Augustenburg against the policy of the two great German powers.

Finally, in the war of , in spite of Bismarck 's efforts to secure her neutrality, Bavaria sided actively with Austria. The rapid victory of the Prussians and the wise moderation of Bismarck paved the way for a complete revolution in Bavaria's relation to Prussia and the German question. The South German Confederation , contemplated by the 6th article of the Treaty of Prague , never came into being; and, though Prussia, in order not to excite the alarm of France, opposed the suggestion that the southern states should join the North German Confederation , the bonds of Bavaria as of the other southern states with the north were strengthened by an offensive and defensive alliance with Prussia, as the result of Napoleon's demand for "compensation" in the Palatinate.

This was signed at Berlin on 22 August , on the same day as the signature of the formal treaty of peace between the two countries. The separatist ambitions of Bavaria were thus formally given up; she had no longer "need of France"; and during the Franco-Prussian War , the Bavarian army marched, under the command of the Prussian crown prince, against Germany's common enemy.

This was preceded, on 23 November , by the signature of a treaty between Bavaria and the North German Confederation. By this instrument, though Bavaria became an integral part of the new German empire, she reserved a larger measure of sovereign independence than any of the other constituent states. Thus she retained a separate diplomatic service, military administration, and postal, telegraph and railway systems.

The treaty was ratified by the Bavarian chambers on 21 January , though not without considerable opposition on the part of the so-called Patriot Party. Their hostility was increased by the Kulturkampf , due to the promulgation in of the dogma of papal infallibility.

Munich University , where Ignaz von Döllinger was professor, became the centre of the opposition to the new dogma, and the Old Catholics were protected by the king and the government.

The federal law expelling the Jesuits was proclaimed in Bavaria on 6 September and was extended to the Redemptorists in On 31 March , moreover, the bonds with the rest of the empire had been drawn closer by the acceptance of a number of laws of the North German Confederation, of which the most important was the new criminal code, which was finally put into force in Bavaria in The opposition of the Patriot Party, however, reinforced by the strong Catholic sentiment of the country, continued and it was only the steady support given by the king to successive Liberal ministries that prevented its finding disastrous expression in the parliament, where it remained in a majority till , and subsequently, as the Centre Party , continued to form the most compact party.

Ludwig II, whose passion for building palaces and near-total neglect of his governmental duties were becoming a serious crisis, was declared insane and on 10 June , his uncle, Prince Luitpold , became the regent.

The question of whether his death was self-imposed, accidental or the result of malicious conspirators remains unanswered. However, it was reported at the time and today is widely accepted that it was a suicide. After , Bavaria shared to the full in the rapid development of Germany; but her particularism, founded on traditional racial and religious antagonism to the Prussians, was by no means dead, though it exhibited itself in no more dangerous form than the prohibition, reissued in , to display any but the Bavarian flag on public buildings on the emperor's birthday; a provision which was subsequently modified so as to allow the Bavarian and imperial flags to be hung side by side.

Following Prince Luitpold's death in , his son, Prince Ludwig, became the regent. Republican institutions replaced royal ones in Bavaria during the upheavals of November Eisner was assassinated on 21 February ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short lived Bavarian Socialist Republic Bayerische Räterepublik or Münchner Räterepublik being proclaimed from 6 April After violent suppression by elements of the German Army and notably the Freikorps , the Bavarian Socialist Republic fell on 3 May Munich became a hotbed of extremism: For most of the Weimar Republic , though, Bavaria was dominated by the relatively mainstream conservative Bavarian People's Party.

The BPP was a Catholic party that represented the Bavarian tradition of particularist conservatism, through which monarchist and even separatist sentiments were conveyed. An attempt supported by a wide coalition of parties, to establish Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria , as a Staatskommisar with dictatorial powers in to counter the Nazis failed due to the hesitant Bavarian government under Heinrich Held. With the rise of the Nazis to power in , the Bavarian parliament was dissolved without new elections.

Instead, the seats were allocated according to the results in the national election of March , giving the Nazis and its coalition partner, the DNVP , a narrow two-seat majority due to the fact that the seats won by the KPD were declared void. In , the Bavarian parliament was, like all other state parliaments, dissolved too. During the 12 years of Nazi rule, Bavaria was one of Hitlers favorite locations, spending much time in his residence at the Obersalzberg.

The KZ in Dachau , near Munich, was the first to be established. But Bavaria was also the scene of passive resistance to the regime, the most well known of this being the White Rose. After the war, carefully chosen for this reason, the city became the location of the war crimes trials, the Nuremberg Military Tribunals. While Bavaria had approximately 54, Jewish people living in its borders at the turn of the 20th century, by still 41, lived in the state.

By , this number had shrunk to 16,, and few of those survived the Nazi rule. This photo of the original gate and lettering was taken shortly after the liberation in This gate led into the Appellplatz, or roll call site, of the prisoner compound. The view on the left was taken on 3 May from the top of the Jourhaus gate building. The building on the right, which served as a kitchen, laundry, and shower building, now houses the Dachau museum. The original prisoner barracks were all torn down after the war, but some have been rebuilt as part of the memorial site below.

At one end of the Appelplatz was the largest building of the Dachau camp, often called the Maintenance Building today, which housed kitchen, laundry, and shower facilities, and is now the Dachau museum. The slogan on the roof which also appeared on the roof of the kitchen building in the Auschwitz main camp was "Es gibt einen Weg zur Freiheit.

Its milestones are obedience, honesty, cleanliness, sobriety, hard work, discipline, sacrifice, truthfulness, love of the fatherland. The original Dachau crematorium was a small Fachwerk half-timbered building with only one 2-chamber oven. My father took a picture of it in above left , and it has been preserved as part of the memorial the modern photo shows the other side of the building because the side that my father photographed is covered by vegetation today. A larger crematorium was built in , and has also been preserved.

In the photo on the left below, U. Army soldiers are examining a stack of bodies found outside the crematorium during the libration of the camp. Dachau crematorium ovens as seen shortly after the liberation of the camp by the U. The new crematorium complex included a series of disinfecting chambers. In it was assumed that these were gas chambers, but there is no evidence that prisoners were gassed here.

Although the chambers did use poison gas, their purpose was to disinfect and delouse prisoners' clothing. There was a gas chamber at Dachau inside the new crematorium , and it may have been tested on prisoners, but there was no large-scale murder of prisoners there, as Dachau was not a death camp.

Most of the prisoners who died at Dachau died of disease, malnutrition, and overwork, and the new crematorium was built to dispose of their bodies.

Looking across the Würm river canal toward the camp. On the opposite bank is a concrete machinegun bunker, some of which can still be found at the site today right. Some of the original camp electrical fencing has also been preserved below. Some of the fencing at Dachau, such as that seen on the right below, was reproduced after the war. Other bunkers around the perimeter of the Dachau camp were provided as emergency air raid shelters for the guard force.

This line of small concrete bunkers is found along the southern side of the camp, behind the Maintenance Building and "Bunker," between the wire fence and the exterior concrete fence.

In the May view above, taken from a guard tower, note the camouflage pattern painting on the roof of the Maintenance Building and adjacent "Bunker" dark one-story building just inside the wire fence. The Dachau Kommandantur headquarters. The original building still stands, just outside the Dachau memorial site. The main building of the SS Kaserne can be seen in the left distance. Dachau-Archiv; thanks to Prof. Harold Marcuse for info. Looking out from the Jourhaus Gate, one views the route walked by the prisoners into the camp directly behind this point of view.

The current memorial site ends at the end of this cobblestone walk, and beyond it can be seen the Kommandantur building, former workshop buildings, and the SS Kaserne, which are all outside the memorial site today. On the right is an aerial view of some of these buildings. The Kommandantur is at the bottom center, with the workshop buildings to its left, and the L-shaped SS barracks building beyond.

Contrary to what some guides say, the concrete structure seen in the modern photos was not a rail siding where the prisoners were let off the trains, just outside the Jourhaus Gate. The prisoners were actually let off the trains at the other side of the SS compound out of view of these photos - see below , and they were forced to walk through the compound to enter the Jourhaus Gate. The narrow-gauge rail line seen here today was actually used by the workshop buildings there were originally two more workshop buildings here, just to either side where the earthen berms are today.

The main entrance to the SS training area as distinct from the SS camp administration area was on the other side of the compound, near today's John F. This building is now the main entrance to the Bavarian Police compound, and is not open to the public. Below, soldiers of the U. Another " Moll System " concrete bunker guard position can be seen at the left. The stone arch gateway with large eagle no longer exists.

Army photos; bottom left - U. These views show the back side of the gate building. An adjacent bridge over the Pollnbach stream had a column with a stone swastika on top see enlarged inset at right.

The bridge and column are still there, but the swastika is long gone. The bridge was called the Samoa Brücke, and the original letters of the sign can still be faintly seen. Adjacent to this gate building was the entrance actually used by concentration camp prisoners. The main rail line into the former munitions factory ran through here, and this is where prisoners got off the rail cars and were then marched through the SS compound to enter the prisoner compound through the Jourhaus Gate.

The period photo shows the infamous "Death Train" from Buchenwald , in which many prisoners had died from Allied air strafing, malnutrition, and neglect during a weeks-long journey, and which was discovered by soldiers of the 45th Infantry Division as they reached the area of the Dachau compound on 29 April The sight of these prisoner corpses raised a fury in some of the U.

The modern photo shows a short section of the original track that has been excavated at the entry gate, but the viewpoint of the photo was some distance back down the tracks, behind where the modern photo was taken.

The period image is said to show the first bus load of prisoners being taken into Dachau in March these would have been political prisoners and dissidents, not Jews.

The royal Bavarian coat of arms can still be seen above the entry archway of the gate building, which was part of the World War I gunpowder and munitions factory. This aerial view shows most of the original Dachau compound, including the buildings shown on this webpage.

The only part of the site open to the public today is the memorial area at s Above, prisoners are released through a side gate near the workshop buildings in the winter of Below - later, prisoners were put to work in some of the old workshop buildings during the war. These partially deserted buildings are right outside the prisoner compound near the Jourhaus Gate 5 in the aerial view above.

When the SS took over the Dachau site in they used the buildings from a former World War I gunpowder and munitions factory. The buildings seen above had been the headquarters of the munitions factory staff. The wide street was renamed "Avenue of the SS. Although these buildings are located today inside the Bavarian Police compound, they can be viewed from the street outside. The "Holländer Hall," one of the original large buildings of the Bavarian government gunpowder and munitions factory, can still be seen on the northern edge of the site the building is in very bad condition today and is off-limits.

This building is marked 8 on the aerial view above. Period accounts differ, but there is no question that U. Army soldiers allowed camp inmates to murder SS guards who had surrendered, or that U.

Sammlung des Fotografen Christian Wurm