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Das Haus, das dort steht. The house that stands there. All other changes are encountered less frequently and not in every text. Triple consonants preceding a vowel are no longer reduced but hyphenation is often used in these instances anyway:. In particular, triple "s" now appears more often than all the other triple consonants together, while in the traditional orthography they never appear.
Doubled consonants appear after short vowels at the end of certain words, to conform with derived forms:. Vowel changes , especially ä for e , are made to conform with derived forms or related words. Additional minor changes aim to remove a number of special cases or to allow alternative spellings. Several loan words now allow spellings that are closer to the "German norm".
In particular, the affixes -phon , -phot , and -graph can be spelled with f or ph. Capitalisation after a colon is now obligatory only if a full sentence or direct speech follows; otherwise a lower case letter must go after a colon. The polite capitalisation of the formal second-person pronouns Sie , Ihnen , and Ihr was retained. The original reform also provided that the familiar second-person pronouns du , dich , dir , dein , ihr , euch , and euer should not be capitalised, even in letters, but this was amended in the revision to permit their optional capitalisation in letters.
The reform aimed to make the capitalisation of nouns uniform and clarify the criteria for this. In the original reform, this included the capitalisation of some nouns in compound verbs where the nouns had largely lost that property, for instance changing eislaufen to Eis laufen to ice-skate and kopfstehen to Kopf stehen to stand on one's head.
However this was reversed in the revision, restoring verbs like eislaufen and kopfstehen. As before, compound nouns are generally joined into one word, but several other compounds are now separated. Multiple infinitive verbs used with finite verbs are separated:.
There are some subtle changes in the meaning when the new forms collide with some pre-existing forms:. Spelling reform had been discussed for a long time and was still controversial in the late s. The initial proposals of this working group were further discussed at two conferences in Vienna, Austria , in and , to which the Austrian government had invited representatives from every region where German is spoken.
In the closing remarks from the first of these meetings, capitalisation reform was put off to a future "second phase" of German language reform attempts, since no consensus had been reached. In , the ministers of education of the federal states Bundesländer in West Germany assigned the Institute for the German Language in Mannheim, Germany and the Society for the German Language in Wiesbaden, Germany with the task of coming up with a new system of rules.
However, these proposals were quickly rejected by the general public, and then they were withdrawn by the ministers of education as unacceptable. At the same time, similar groups were formed in Switzerland, Austria, and East Germany.
Proposals for its New Regulation. In , the German ministers of education invited 43 groups to present their opinions on the document, with hearings held in the unified Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. On the basis of these hearings, the working group backed off from the notion of eliminating the capitalisation of all nouns. At a third conference in Vienna in , the results were recommended to the respective governments for acceptance. The German ministers of education decided to implement the new rules on 1 August , with a transitional period lasting until the — school year.
On 1 July , all of the German states Bundesländer , and the countries of Austria , Switzerland , and Liechtenstein , as well as some other countries with German-speaking minorities but notably not Luxembourg agreed to introduce the new spelling by 1 August A few German Bundesländer introduced the new rules starting from the —97 school year. The reforms did not attract much attention from the general public until after the international declaration of intent was signed.
Animated arguments arose about the correctness of the decision, with schoolteachers being the first to be faced with the implementation of the new rules. The protest gained further nationwide significance through initiatives such as Wir Lehrer gegen die Rechtschreibreform We Teachers Against the Spelling Reform ,  which was headed by the teacher and activist Manfred Riebe. In May , the "Society for German Spelling and Language Cultivation — initiative against the spelling reform"  Verein für deutsche Rechtschreibung und Sprachpflege e.
VRS — Initiative gegen die Rechtschreibreform was founded in opposition to the German spelling reform. The issue was taken up in the courts, with different decisions in different German states, so that the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany Bundesverfassungsgericht was called upon to make a ruling.
On 14 July , after one hearing on 12 May , and involving only one teachers' organisation, the High Court declared that the introduction of the spelling reform by the ministers of education was legal. In the German state of Schleswig-Holstein , a majority of voters in a referendum on 27 September called for a return to traditional spellings. However, the minister-president of the state, Heide Simonis , found a way to reverse the results of the referendum via a parliamentary vote in While the new German dictionaries were published in July and August , the critics of the language reform perceived themselves to be justified.
They began to demand the reversal of the change at the federal level. However, the ministers of education continued to refuse to accede to their demands. The editors of the Duden dictionaries also agreed that many of the problems in the traditional spelling system were due to the "arcane rules" that had been fabricated to explain the system, thus lending their support to the new spelling system, which they said was and is more logical.
In , an international committee was formed to handle any cases of doubt that might arise under the new rules. In , the German federal minister of education and research , Edelgard Bulmahn , announced that this committee was to be given wide-ranging powers to make decisions about German spelling.
Only in cases of extreme changes, such as the proposed capitalisation change, would the committee require the consent of the states' ministers of education. This move was strongly criticised. Simultaneously, the committee released its fourth report on spelling reforms, reviewing the points of the reform in detail. However, this report was rejected by the Conference of Ministers of Education in March The ministers also demanded that the committee work together with the German Academy for Language and Poetry in its future deliberations.
The academy had been strongly critical of the reform from the beginning. The ministers also made changes to the composition of the international committee. In July , the ministers decided to introduce some changes to the reform, making both the traditional and the new spellings acceptable. They also formed a Council for German Orthography , "38 experts from five countries", representing linguists, publishers, writers, journalists, teachers and parents.
Taking the place of the existing international committee, the Council agreed unanimously to implement the uncontroversial parts of the reform, while allowing compromises on other changes: The spelling change is based on the international agreement of 1 July , signed on behalf of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.
There have been no Bundestag parliamentary decisions on the reforms. Instead, as mentioned above, the German Supreme Court ruled that the reform in the public schools could be decided by the ministers of education.
Thus, as of 1 August , the traditional spelling system was to be considered incorrect in the schools, except that two of the German states, Bavaria and North Rhine-Westphalia , had both officially rejected the reform. Since , the new rules have become compulsory in Bavarian and North Rhine-Westphalian public schools as well. It is presumed that from the schools the writing reforms will spread to the German-speaking public.
As of [update] , most German printed media used spelling rules that to a large extent comply with the reforms. Still, some newspapers, including Die Zeit , the Neue Zürcher Zeitung , the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , and the Süddeutsche Zeitung , created their own in-house orthography rules, while most other newspapers used approximately the rules set out by the DPA.
Schoolbooks and children's books generally follow the new spellings, while the text of novels is presented as the authors prefer. Classic works of literature are typically printed without any changes, unless they are editions specifically intended for use in schools.
Since dictionaries adopted the new spellings early on, there is no currently in-print, standard reference work available for traditional spellings. The commerce in used copies of the older Duden dictionaries has dwindled. As of the edition, the Duden dictionary includes the most recent changes proposed by the ministers of education.
Liechtenstein follows the same spelling system as Switzerland. Due to the nature of the topic, most books and papers regarding the German spelling reform appeared in the German language. The following list includes authors who are responsible for the definition of the imposed changes.